Specialised Cells

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Sperm cell
Long tail to swim through the uterus. Aerodynamic head to penetrate egg cell. Not much cytoplasm for maximum space for nucleus.
Neurone
Dendrites to attach to other Neurones
Red Blood Cell
Small so it can pass through capillaries. No nucleus to maximise space for haemoglobin
Phloem cell
No nucleus and little cytoplasm. Sieve plates to allow flow of sap
Xylem
For water transportation in cell.
Wide canal to let water and minerals through.
Muscle cell
Tessellating shape to fit together easily, elasticated substance to move easily
Palisade cell
Large surface area for maximum absorption.
Root hair cell
Large surface area to absorb as much water as possible, thin cell wall.