Upgrade to remove ads
History: Medicine: Renaissance Period (1500-1700)
Terms in this set (53)
Definition of the 'Medical Renaissance'
A period of new ideas influencing medicine due to a decline in the power of the church and increasing scientific discoveries.
Renaissance continuity vs change?
Continuity= Four Humours and treatment of opposites. Galen's writings studied
Change= Emergence of science, less mystic. Used observation and experiments.
New books found stressing importance of anatomy and dissections, began to question Galen's ideas
Catholic influence reduced as Protestant Reformation began to spread 1517, no longer had as much control over medical teaching but still important
Two supernatural explanations for the cause of disease which remained popular during epidemics
God's punishment for sin
One rational explanation for the cause of disease which remained popular despite being rejected by physicians by 1700
Four Humours Theory
Theory about the cause of disease put forward by Thomas Sydenham (an English doctor)
Disease is caused by factors external to (outside of) the body
Disease is separate to the patient, rather than being caused by something the patient has done.
Diseases can be organised into different groups (eg. measles and scarlet fever were identified as separate diseases by Sydenham)
Made detailed observations and kept records of symptoms
Emphasised diagnosis, not prognosis (predictions)
How did the war affect medicine?
Saw new weapons like cannons and guns, so had to quickly find new treatments
What happened in the 1530s?
Dissolution of the monastries, so led to the closure of many hospitals, so bad for people's health.
What replaced the old hospitals?
Gradually replaced by free hospitals by charitable donations, new hospitals had trained physicians who were more focused on getting better from illness.
Name of Sydenham's book
Observationes medicae (1676)
Helped doctors use as textbook for 200 years after, descriptions of gout helped them to diagnose patients more easily.
Which Dutch scientist first observed 'animalcules' (bacteria) using a more powerful microscope
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Four advantages of the printing press, when invented
Information could be spread more accurately and quickly, debated more, also translated and spread across countries
Book copying was taken out of the hands of the Church, so ideas could now be published which the Church may have disapproved of.
Question existing ideas, such as Galen's, 600 copies printed until 1600, so many different versions so unclear and less reliable
Students could have own textbooks
When was the Royal Society set up
Two aims of the Royal Society
To promote and carry out scientific experiments
To share scientific knowledge
Which King supported the Royal Society
Charles II, gave very high status
Name of the scientific journal published by the Royal Society
Philosophical transactions, more could read about inventions and discoveries
Which member of the Royal Society confirmed Leeuwenhoek's observations of 'animalcules'
Robert Hooke, showing first drawings of a flea under a microscope
Why was there still little change in the Renaissance despite the printing press and Royal Society?
Most people couldn't read or write, so only impact small part of society.
Two rational treatments for restoring the balance of the humours continued from the Middle Ages
Focused more on reading books than treating patients
What care was still popular?
Wise women, herbal remedies within community
Use medical or recipe books passed down in families
Two ways in which the use of herbal remedies changed during the Medical Renaissance
Remedies were chosen for their colour or shape eg. yellow herbs like saffron to treat jaundice (an illness which turns the skin yellow)
Remedies appeared from other countries like the New World eg. Sydenham used cinchona bark from Peru to treat malaria
Two new rational treatments for disease
Transference-the belief that an illness could be transferred to something else eg. rubbing warts with an onion
Iatrochemistry - looking for chemical cures for disease eg. use of mercury to treat syphilis
Which professionals continued to give medical care during the Medical Renaissance
Physicians, apothecaries and surgeons (physicians still very expensive so used less)
What superstitious theories continued?
King's touch could cure scrofula (skin disease), thousands visited King Charles 1 with hope of cure.
Two changes to surgeons and apothecaries during the Medical Renaissance
They were better educated
They had to have a licence to carry out their work
Two reasons why it was still difficult for physicians to get practical experience during their training
Dissection was legalised, but it was difficult to get fresh corpses
Few universities had an anatomy theatre for dissecting bodies
Why were physicians able to access a greater variety of books on topics like anatomy and iatrochemistry
More books available due to the use of the printing press
Name of the most famous anatomist during the Medical Renaissance
What did Vesalius do?
Performed dissections on criminals who had been executed to study human anatomy. Wrote books using detailed diagrams about his findings.
Name of the most famous book about anatomy by Vesalius
'On the fabric of the human body' (1543)
How many mistakes did Vesalius find in the work of Galen on anatomy
What was the long-term impact of Vesalius
Proved Galen could be wrong (e.g. holes in the septum that blood can pass through is wrong)
Encouraged doctors to carry out human dissections rather than just relying upon old texts, used more in medical training
Why did Vesalius not have an immediate impact?
Not immediate on diagnosis and treatment, yet by producing description of anatomy was essential first step.
Why were hospitals still basic?
-For sick or 'deserving poor' may have to work in them, not just treated
-Those with incurable or infectious diseases often not let in
-Still focused on moral and spiritual education, yet health and sickness becoming more of a priority
Two features of 16th century hospitals
Visits from physicians to diagnose and prescribe treatments
Medication provided as many had pharmacies
Which event led to the closure of many hospitals in the 16th century
Dissolution (closure) of the monasteries ( as many monasteries (the church) had run hospitals)
Name of new hospitals set up for patients with infectious diseases like plague or pox
Who still cared for most sick people
Women in the home
Two rational methods for preventing disease which continued from the Middle Ages
Following the Regimen Sanitatis
Cleanliness of the home and body
Four new rational methods for preventing disease from the Medical Renaissance
Avoid bathing in public bathhouses as they were linked to the spread of syphilis
Practice moderation in all things eg. avoiding laziness/avoiding too much alcohol
Avoid certain weather conditions linked to the spread of disease
Remove sewage and pick up rubbish from the streets to avoid miasma
How did Harvey do his work?
Studied animals and humans, he could observe living animal hearts and apply to humans.
Four medical discoveries made by William Harvey
He proved that the heart worked like a pump
He proved that blood circulates around the body
He proved that Galen was wrong about blood being made in the liver and burnt up in the body
He proved that Galen was wrong about blood flowing from one side of the heart to the other via invisible pores in the septum
Four factors which enabled Harvey to make medical progress
Individuals - Vesalius had already proved that Galen could be wrong
Technology - the invention of fire pumps inspired Harvey to look again at how the heart worked
The Church - the declining power and influence of the Church allowed Harvey to dissect human bodies
Attitudes in society - an interest in enquiry and searching for rational explanations
Impact of Harvey upon medicine
Encouraged other doctors and scientists to experiment and challenge old ideas, showed importance of dissection
His discoveries gave new map of how the body worked, eventually lead to blood transfusions and complex surgery
Knowledge of blood circulation had little impact on treatments because it seemed to have little practical value at the time. Eg. blood-letting continued as a treatment. When blood transfusions tried, rarely successful, blood loss, shock, wrong types. Despite Harvey, medical treatments and techniques still basic
Date of the Great Plague
How many died during the Great Plague?
Around 20% of population
Two supernatural explanations for the cause of the Great Plague
God's punishment for sins
Unusual alignment of the planets
Two rational explanations for the cause of the Great Plague
Spread from one infected person to another
Three rational methods for treating the plague
Wrap up in a woollen cloth and lay near a fire to sweat out the disease
Transference - eg. strap a live chicken to a buboe (a swelling on the body ) to transfer the plague from the buboe to the chicken
Ways to treat the Plague
-Wearing lucky charms or amulets
-Prayers and fasting
-Remedies with ingredients like dried toad
-Posies of herbs or flowers
-Transference (new one)
Two examples of advice given by physicians to prevent catching the plague
Carry a pomander (a ball containing perfumed substances) to drive away miasma
Special diets eg. either fasting or eating food heavy with garlic
Two examples of advice given by local healers to prevent catching the plague
Recipes for 'plague water' from apothecaries
Features of the costume worn by plague doctors during the Great Plague of 1665
Hooked, birdlike mask (believed birds attracted the disease away from the victim)
Sweet smelling substances in the mask
Wax coated cloak to prevent pus and blood soaking in
Action taken by the government to prevent the spread of the plague
Streets were swept and cleaned
Fires burnt on street corners
Public meetings, fairs and theatres were closed
Cats and dogs were killed
Buried corpses in mass graves
Searchers were appointed to check houses for plague victims. If a household was infected, the people were taken to the pest house or quarantined inside their house for 28 days. The house was painted with a red cross together with the words 'Lord have mercy on us'.
Local Councils, no national government response
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
History: Medicine: Modern Medicine
Medicine: Important dates
GCSE History (Medicine) Edexcel
GCSE History - Medicine, The Renaissance
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Renaissance medicine 1500-1700
KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER: KEY TOPIC 2, 'C1500-C1700: TH…
Health and Medicine over time
History Health and Medicine
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Biology Required Practical Unknowns P2
Required practical unknowns P2 Chemistry
Physics: Unknown required practicals