Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (43)
Shows how water moves around
Different parts include:
Hydrological Cycle Steps
1) Water evaporates from sea and land
2) Water vapour is moved inland by winds
3) Water vapour condenses into clouds and falls to ground as precipitation
4) Water moves from one place to another
5) Water is held on the land by stores
6) The water eventually ends up in the sea, where it evaporates and goes round the cycle again
When water soaks into the soil
When water moves vertically down through soil and rock
When water in the soil flows downhill
When water in rock flows downhill
When water flows overground
The flow of water in a river
When water is held in a river
When water is stored underground in soil and rock. A rock that stores water is called an aquifer (e.g. chalk)
When water lands on things like plant leaves and doesn't hit the ground
When water is held in things like lakes, reservoirs or puddles
The area of land drained by a river
- Water flows through them and is stored in them
- There are outputs of water from drainage basins
Key features of drainage basins
Source, tributary, confluence, mouth, and watershed
Place where a river or stream begins, often in highlands
A stream or river that flows into a larger river
Meeting points of two rivers
The part of a river that flows into a lake, reservoir or ocean
Physical Weathering Example
1) Water gets into cracks in rocks
2) When the water freezes it expands, which puts pressure on the rock
3) When the water thaws, it contracts, which releases the pressure on the rock
4) Repeated freezing and thawing widens the cracks and causes the rock to break up
Chemical Weathering Example
1) Rainwater has CO₂ dissolved in it, which makes it a weak carbonic acid
2) Carbonic acid reacts with rock that contains calcium carbonate, e.g. limestone, so the rocks are dissolved by the rainwater
Biological Weathering Example
Roots of plants
The breakdown of rocks by living things e.g. plant roots break down rocks by growing into cracks on their surfaces and pushing them apart
Involves a whole segment of the cliff moving down-slope along a saturated shear-plane.
The slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope.Its results can be seen in step-like terracettes on hillsides.
The force of the water breaks rock particles away from the river channel
The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
A gradual reduction or weakening of rock
Water dissolves minerals from the rocks and washes them away
How does the river and its valley change from the source to the mouth?
A river's course can be divided into three stages; upper, middle, and lower courses.
The upper course is characterised by narrow shallow channels, vertical erosion and low velocity. Common landforms include waterfalls, gorges, V shaped valleys and interlocking spurs.
Meanders are found in the middle course and the channel becomes wider and can migrate through lateral erosion.
In the lower course channels are wide and deep and velocity is high in the channel. Common landforms are floodplains, levees and oxbow lakes. Estuaries or deltas are found at the mouth of some rivers.
Upper course landforms
Interlocking spurs and waterfalls
Middle course landforms
Lower course landforms
Ox bow lake , levees and flood plains
Interlocking spurs formation
1) In the upper course of a river most of the erosion is vertically downwards. This creates steep sided, V shaped valleys
2) The rivers aren't powerful enough to erode laterally (sideways) - they have to wind around the high hillsides that stick out into their paths on either side
3) The hillsides that interlock with each other as the river winds around them are called interlocking spurs
1) Waterfalls form where a river flows over an area of hard rock followed by an area of soft rock
2) The softer rock is eroded more than the hard rock creating a 'step' in the river
3) As water goes over the step it erodes more and more of the softer rock
4) A steep drop is eventually created
5) The hard rock is eventually undercut by the erosion. It becomes unsupported and collapses
6) The collapsed rocks are swirled around at the foot of the waterfall, where they erode the softer rock (abrasion) to create a plunge pool
7) Over time this repeats, causing the waterfall to retreat, leaving behind a steep sided gorge
This is because vertical erosion is replaced by a sideways form of erosion called LATERAL erosion, plus deposition within the floodplain.
1) The current is faster on the outside of the bend, because the river channel is deeper (less friction to slow the water down = more energy)
2) More erosion takes place on the outside of the bend, forming river cliffs
3) The current is slower on the inside of the bend because the river channel is shallower (more friction to slow the water down = less energy)
4) Eroded material is deposited on the inside of of the bend, forming slip-off slopes
Ox-Bow Lake Formation
Erosion causes the outside bends to get closer until there's only a small but of land between the bends (called the neck). The river breaks through this land, usually in a flood, and the river flows along the shortest course. Deposition eventually cuts off the meander, forming an ox-bow lake
1) During a flood, eroded material is deposited over the whole flood plain.
2) The heaviest material is deposited closest to the river channel, because it gets dropped first when the river slows down
3) Over time, the deposited material builds up, creating levees along the edges of the channel
Flood plain formation
1) A river may overflow its banks during times of heavy rain.
2) When the river recedes, the river deposits the material it is carrying, leaving behind silt.
3) Floodplains are the wide and flat plains formed by the deposited material or alluvium build up on either side of the river with successive floods over the years.
4) The heavier and coarser sediments are first deposited at the river's edge.
5) The finer particles are being deposited a little further away from the river.
Interlocking spurs definition
Interlocking spurs are the outcrops of land along the river course in a valley.
A cascade of water falling from a height, formed when a river or stream flows over a precipice or steep incline.
A looplike bend in the course of a river
Ox-Bow Lake definition
a meander which has been cut off from the main river channel and abandoned.
Natural embankments along the edges of a river
Flood Plain Definition
Flat areas of land that floods
Sets found in the same folder
Typhoon Haiyan (case study for tropical…
Sets with similar terms
Weathering & Erosion/ Water Unit
Other sets by this creator