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Terms in this set (101)
Functions of the Skeleton
Support, protection, movement, shape, mineral storage, blood cell production
Types of Bones
Long, Short, Flat, Irregular
2 types of blood cells
Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells
Main muscles in the arms
Deltoids, rotator cuffs, biceps, triceps
Arteries contracting and expanding
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
Main muscles in upper body
Trapezius, pectorals, abdominals, latissimus dorsi, gluteals
What is cardiac output?
Volume of blood ejected by the heart in one minute:
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volumne
Define Health and Fitness
- A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
- The ability to meet/cope with the demands of the environment
What is the pathway of air into and out of the body?
Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, Bronchioles and Alveoli
Two Long Term Effects of Exercise
Hypertrophy (increase in muscle size) and Bradycardia (lower resting heart rate)
Upper and Lower Chambers of the Heart
Atria (upper) and Ventricles (lower)
Different parts of a synovial joint
Cartilage, synovial fluid, capsule, bursae
What is the cardiac cycle?
One complete heartbeat
Systole (contraction phase)
Diastole (relaxation phase)
What is tidal volume?
amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal breathing cycle
What is expiratory reserve volume?
Air that can still be breathed out after normal expiration
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
additional inspired air over and above tidal volume
What is residual volume?
volume of air still contained in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
Bones in the legs
Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, meta-tarsels and phalanges
Bones in the arms
Humerus, ulna, radius, carpels, meta-carpels and phalanges
What is flexibility?
The range of motion around a joint
SIT AND REACH TEST
What is co-ordination?
The ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently
WALL TOSS TEST
Bones in the Upper Body
Mandible, sternum, clavicle, pelvis, cranium, scapula, ribs, vertebrae
What is agility?
the ability to change the position of the body in space with speed and accuracy
ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST
Different types of movement
Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation
Forward and backward movement of the ankle
Plantar flexion and Dorsiflexion
What is muscular endurance?
the ability of a muscle to contract continuously or repeatedly over a given period of time
SIT UP BLEEP TEST
What is cardiovascular endurance?
The ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles
MULTI-STAGE FITNESS TEST
What is balance?
Maintaining the centre of mass over the base of support
THE 'STORK' BALANCE TEST
What is fartlek training?
Where speed and environment vary
What is flexibility training?
Series of stretches that improve flexibility
What is interval training?
Sessions divided into periods of work and rest
What is the inverted U theory?
As arousal increases so does performance
Up to the optimal/perfect level
If arousal increase further, performance will decrease
What are the three methods of controlling arousal?
Two types of aggression
Direct and Indirect
What is an introvert?
Quiet, passive, reserved and shy. Usually associated with solo sports
What is an extrovert?
Sociable, active, talkative and outgoing. Usually associated with team sports
Name 6 Technological Developments
What is a barrier to participation?
An obstacle that prevents a group within society from participating in sport
What is etiquette?
The unwritten rules concerning player behaviour
What is sportsmanship?
Appropriate and fair behaviour while participating in sporting event
What is gamesmanship?
Bending the rules to an advantage
What are peptide hormones?
Increases numbers of red blood cells
What are diuretics?
Used to flush salt from the body, cause more frequent urination
What is blood doping?
Any method of increasing the number of RBC's to increase athletic performance
What are beta blockers used for?
To calm performers down by reducing the effects of adrenaline
Types of guidance
Visual, verbal, manual and mechanical
What is a skill?
A learnt action
What is an ability?
Inherited from your parents
What is a basic and complex skill?
- few decisions, taught to beginners, e.g. walking
- lots of decisions, taught to experts, e.g. high jump
What is a gross and fine skill?
- large muscle groups, doesn't rely on accuracy, e.g. running
- small muscle groups, relies of accuracy, e.g. archery
What is an open and closed skill?
- unstable environment, e.g. outwit an opponent
- stable environment, same way each time, e.g. somersault
What is a self-paced and externally-paced skill?
- starts when the performer decides, e.g. the speed of a race
- starts because of an external factor, e.g. an opponent
Two different types of goals
Performance and outcome goals
What does SMART stand for?
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
What are stimulants?
drugs that speed up the central nervous system
What are narcotics?
Powerful painkillers that also produce pleasurable feelings and induce sleep
What are anabolic steroids?
synthetic forms of testosterone
The drive to succeed or the desire to achieve something
Define intrinsic motivation
The drive that comes from within the performer
Define extrinsic motivation
The drive experienced by a performer when striving to achieve a reward (tangible or intangible)
Types of feedback
Intrinsic and Extrinsic
What is arousal?
A blend of physiological and psychological activity in a person
1st class lever
fulcrum in the middle; header in football. Load = resistance. Force = effort
2nd class lever
fulcrum at the end, load in the middle; tip-toes in ballet. Load = resistance. Force = effort
3rd class lever
fulcrum at the end, effort in the middle; kicking in football. Load = resistance. Force = effort
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
Spin on spot
vertical division of the body into right and left portions
Flexion and extension
Divides the body into front and back portions
Abduction and adduction
What is plyometric training?
Eccentric muscular contractions jumping over obstacles
What is weight training?
Physical training that involves lifting weights
Two types of exercise
Aerobic and Anaerobic
Main muscles in the legs
Hip flexors, quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, tibialis anteriors, tibialis anterior tendons
What is circuit training?
Can be designed to cater for specific needs. Involves a range of activities,
What is a tendon?
Connects muscle to bone
What is a ligament?
Connects bone to bone
Types of joints
Synovial, hinge and ball & socket
What is continuous training?
Training lasting for longer periods without rest.
Groups of muscles
Voluntary, involuntary and cardiac
What is strength?
The ability to overcome resistance
HANDGRIP DYNOMETER TEST
What is speed?
the rate at which an object covers a distance
30M SPEED TEST
What is reaction time?
The length of time that it takes for you to respond to a stimulus
RULER DROP TEST
What is power?
The product of strength and speed
VERTICAL JUMP TEST
Effects of anaerobic exercise
Lactic acid, oxygen debt and EPOC
Three short term effects of exercise
DOMS, Nausea and Cramp
artery, capillary, vein
What are the reasons for fitness testing?
- identify strength and weaknesses e.g. poor dribbling due to lack of speed
- inform training requirements based on low test scores e.g. score low in Illinois Agility train for agility
- show starting level of fitness
- monitor improvements e.g. has agility improved over time?
How can technology improve performance?
Facilities (spring floors)
Equipment (spring boards)
Clothing (new materials)
What are the different types of sponsorship?
Examples of Barriers to Participation
Name the Social Groups
What is the Golden Triangle?
Shows the relationship between sport, the media and sponsorship. It represents the commercial - money-making - nature of sport.
What is commercialisation?
It's about making a profit from sport
What is inspiration?
What is expiration?
What happens during inspiration?
- breathing muscles contract
- diaphragm flattens
- chest enlarges
- intercostal muscles contract and ribs rise
- chest cavity increases
What happens during expiration?
- breathing muscles relax
- diaphragm curves
- ribs descend
- chest cavity decreases
What happens to tidal volume when you exercise?
It will increase because you need more oxygen for the working muscles
What is lactic acid and what is the equation?
Waste product from anaerobic exercise
Glucose -> energy + lactic acid
Causes fatigue and cramp which makes you slow down
What is EPOC?
Increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity
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