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AQA GCSE Product Design
Terms in this set (249)
Why does product evolution occur?
> Continuous improvement
> Market pull
> Technology push
> Social/cultural needs
> Political/environmental needs
What is market pull?
> Designing to satisfy the needs and wants of customers - costumer demand
> Changing fashions and social attitudes affect what people want and it isn't always the same
Give an example of market pull
A car is designed to get you from A to B but they have become a status symbol and luxury extras such as seat-back TV screens are added
What is technology push?
> Research and development leads to new technologies, materials and manufacturing techniques
> New technology can make a product cheaper, perform its function better or be nicer-looking
Give an example of technology push
Computers started as a hude 'adding machines' but now microchips allow for small, fast and powerful machienes
What is continuous improvement?
> Manufactures want to make more money, increase profit
> They improve the design do they can be made more easily 'continuous improvement'
> They make them as good as possible to make money, be competitive and meet standards of product quality
What alternative reasons can a product evolve for?
> Social or cultural needs (For example, wind-up radios for Africans so they could listen to educational broadcasts about health concerns)
> Political or environmental needs (For example, the need for environmentally friendly products such as hybrid engine cars that are more efficient)
Name the features of the Arts and Crafts movement
> Founded by William Morris
> Bases on patterns found in nature
> Upright and angular
> Made by made and skilled craftsmen
Name the features of the Art Nouveau movement
> Designers include Louis C.Tiffany
> Flowing and curvy designs
> They use floral or insect motifs
Name the features of the Art Deco movement
> Inspired by African and Egyptian art
> Bold colours, zigzag and stepped shapes, bold sweeping curves and the sunset motif
> Example is the Chrysler building in New York
Name the features of the Bauhaus movement
> Movement from Germany
> Has the motto 'form follows function'
> Function is most important and appearance is second
> It is futuristic, simplistic and used mass production methods
> Uses chrome tubing and black leather
Name the features of the De Stijl movement
> Dutch modernist movemnt
> Basic - uses simple shapes, horizontal and vertical lines
> The three primary colous only
> Well known example is Gerrit Rietveld's Red and Blue chair
Name the features of the postmodernism movement
> Rejected 'form follows function'
> Put style as the focus point of design
> Memphis used bright, contrasting colours and different materials
> Some styles contain kitsch and minimalism
What are human factors?
Addressing different needs and values of target groups
> Disabled users
> Cultural and religious values
> Age groups
Explain how products can be changed for disabled users
> Some packaging has Braille for blind users
> Buttons can be made bigger and brighter so they are easier to press and find
> Products such as smoke alarms can have visible signals as well as audio ones so deaf people are alerted to fires
> Instructions can be given in picture or diagram form so people with difficulty reading text can use the product
> Wheelchair access must be designed into busses, trains and working stations (like atms)
Explain how products can be changed to suit cultural and religious values
> You can cater for their dietary needs
> Create products to suit a particular custom or celebration - like Diwali uses lights
> Cultures can use things differently, the Japanese custom is to eat at a low table on the floor
> Clothing styles can vary, it could be inappropriate to wear revealing clothing
> Colours can have different meaning - Chinese brides wear red for example
Explain how products can be changed with respect to age groups
> Small children or the elderly may not be able to manipulate small parts such as tricky fastenings or open packaging
> Elderly and infirm people may have trouble holding and using products so you could make easy grip handles
What are ergonomics?
How easy and comfortable a product is to use, efficiency in use
Why are ergonomics important?
> To fit the size and proportions of the user
> It improves safety, comfort and efficiency
> Long-term damage to health can be caused by badly-designed products
Give an example of ergonomic design
A chair seat must be the right height off the ground and support the persons back in the right places
What are anthropometrics?
The study of human body measurements used to make products of the right size and shape
How are anthropometrics used in design?
> Designers use them to cater for 90% of their target market
> They use percentiles between the 5th and 95th in their design so it is suitable for most users
> If you lie outside of the 90% you need to have products custom-made
Give an example of the use of anthropometric data
> Tennis racket handles width needs to fit the size of the average hand
> Football t-shirts should be made for the average torso, arm and neck sizes
What is a design brief and what does it include?
A statement of what a product should do, a starting point
> What kind of product is needed and why
> How the product will be used
> Functions and properties it should have
> Who the product is for (target market)
What is the point in carrying out research?
> To find if your product is needed/wanted
> To find what people like/dislike about the design
> To be inspired by existing designs
> To find out what materials, components and techniques would be suitable for your design
> To know manufacturing and selling costs
What is market research?
To find peoples likes/dislikes and understand the needs/wants of your target market
What is product analysis?
> Examining an existing product by disassembling it
> Finding out how it was made and works
> See the good and bad features
> Know the size and weight of the product
> Know how it tastes, feels, looks or smells (sensory analysis)
How do you draw conclusions from research?
> Summarise your findings
> Explain how that is applied to your design
What is design specification?
It gives certain conditions the product must meet - often known as design criteria and take account of research findings
What does design specification involve?
What are the three main design methods?
> Systems approach
> Empirical problem solving
> Intuitive designing
What are the features of a systems approach design method?
> Breaking down the design process into different stages and carrying out each step in turn
> It is orderly and reliable
What are the features of an empirical problem solving design method?
> Using trial and error to develop a good design
> Making prototypes of different designs to find which works best
> Each prototype should evolve from the best in order to be improved
What are the features of intuitive designing as a design method?
> Those with lot of experience can make good guesses about what designs will work best
> They use intuition
How can patterns inspire design?
> Grids or repeating shapes can be used
> Packaging often contains simple geometric shapes
How can nature inspire design?
> Structure of products can be inspired - e.g. honeycomb
> The function of products can be inspired - e.g. cats eyes reflecting light inspired road signs
> Aesthetics can be inspired using the close-up effect where you look at a small section of an image, such as a leaf
How are mood boards used?
> They are a collage of materials, images and colours that represent the emotion of a product.
> They are used to trigger design ideas and are a representation of what your target market do/like
What are colours used to do?
Represent moods and feelings
Give examples of the uses of different colours
> Dark colours give a heavy mood
> Pale colours like yellow give a lighter mood
> Colours like red and orange remind us of heat and warmth
> Blues are associated with water an the cold
> Natural colours such as browns, greys and greens are neutral and are associated with calm or relaxation
How is designing a circular process?
It doesn't stop, constantly evaluating you design and improving it to make new ideas will help design a product
How do sketches help design?
Detailed sketches allow you to see how the product will work in practise and decide on details of construction
How are models used to improve design?
> It helps you spot and solve problems in your designs
> They are made using materials that are quick and easy to work with (Like cardboard or polystyrene foam)
> They can be used to try different aspects of your design
How can CAD/CAM models be used to improve design?
> Virtual models in 3D using CAD can be easy to manipulate properties
> Use CAD/CAM to carry out rapid prototyping (3D printers)
How can modelling improve accuracy?
You can experiment with models to find the margin of error there is (tolerance)
What is a prototype?
A full-sized working product made using the right materials and method which are made before industrial production to make sure the product is exactly right
How do prototypes help manufactures avoid big mistakes?
> You can test if the design works properly, is safe and meets the design specification
> You can ask potential end-users for feedback to see if a prototype meets their needs
> If the prototype works well and customers like it you can start production on a larger scale
How should you design products for mass-production?
> Use materials and components that are easily available
> Affordable materials and processes
> Standard size components
> Standard tools
> Processes that don't require skilled workers
What are trademarks?
> Protects compaines so they can't be copied
> Distinctive logos, words or slogans that identify a particular product - if someone uses it you can sue them
How are unregistered and registered trademarks shown?
> Unregistered = TM
> Registered = (R) - in a circle
What are patents used for?
> To protect something that has been invented
> You must get the inventors permission to use it and patents last for 20 years
How can you be granted a patent?
> If the invention involves an 'innovative step'
> And capable of 'industrial application' (used or made in industry)
What is copyright?
> Any design ideas you produce are automatically protected by copyright (the copyright owner)
> Unless you work for someone else
> If they want to reproduce the work (copying written, drawn or recorded work) they must get permission
> It runs out 70 years after death
What is Registered Design?
> It protects a designs shape and appearence, it only applies to the look not how it works
> It stops other people copying it
> You can register all of the design or just parts
> It protects it for 25 years throughout the EU
What two types of presentation should you use in the final design for the client so it be visualised?
> A 3D rendering of how it will look, showing it being used or in its enviroment
> A working drawing with dimensions and details. The manufacture needs it and exploded views to show the complicated parts
How can presentation drawings be done?
> CAD drawings which are realistic, neat and accurate
> Hand drawn presentation drawings but theses would have to be re-drawn with each alteration
What is customer satisfaction?
> When the product works, is good for use and good value for money
> You can achieve this by creating products of high quality and use customer feedback to see if they are satisfied
What is awarded to companies of high quality?
> ISO 9000
> It shows an international standard of quality managment
What does quality assurance involve?
> Staff training
> High quality materials
> Systems to maintain machinery
> Quality control checks throughout manufacturing
What are the aims of quality checks?
> To meet standards set by institutions
> To keep the customer happy
> To manufacture products consistantly
What is quality control?
> Testing samples of components to see if they meet the manufactures specification (e.g. right colour/size)
> When they are checked for size they must be within a specific tolerance , they are given a upper (+) and lower (-) limit which is measured using a micrometer
How do toy produce a manufacturing plan?
> Provide working drawings including materials, sizes and tolerances
> Produce a production plan which shows the order of things with quality control checks built in
What do flow charts show?
Work order and the sequence of tasks
What do gantt charts show?
How long each stage takes and the total time allowed for production
What is a freehand drawing?
Drawing without any equipment apart from a pencil or pen
How are free hand sketches used and why are they annotated?
> To design initial ideas
> To show details such as colour or material
How can you draw 2D drawings using guidelines?
> Mark out squares or boxes
> Use halfway points to draw a circle/ellipse
What are the properties of isometric drawing?
> Vertical edges are vertical lines
> Horizontal edges are at 30 degrees
> Parallel edges are parallel lines
What is the crating method?
You start with a box and gradually add and remove parts to create your 3D drawing by adding details
What are wireframe drawings?
Ones with are not shaded they show all the edges of an object and are often produced with CAD software
What are perspective drawings?
> They use a vanishing point
> One-perspective uses one vanishing point and shows the design head-on
> Two-perspective uses two vanishing points
What are assembly drawings?
> Ones that show you how an object fits together
> It includes exploded views and sectional drawings
What are exploded views?
> They shows all the separate parts moved out
> A dotted line shows where is goes
> They are used in flat-pack furniture
What are sectional drawings?
They show what the product would look like if it was cut in two
How do you draw plan views?
> From above
> A scale using a ratio
> They are used in the building industry by architects and planners
How can you manipulate photos for advertising?
> Using a computer software
> Alter colours
> Add special effects
How can paper and card be used in packaging?
To make bags and boxes
How can textiles be used in packaging?
To make bags
How can metals be used in packaging?
To make cans and foil trays
How can plastic be used in packaging?
To make bottles, tubs, trays, bags, boxes, bubble wrap and airpillows
How can be glass used in packaging?
To make bottles and jars
What are the three main functions of packaging?
To contain, protect and preserve them
How does packaging contain and store products?
> They hold the parts together
> It allows you to fit them neatly together in storage
> Packaging has to be strong so when they are stacked they don't collapse
How does packaging protect products?
> In transport protection stops them being broken
> To protect it from knocks
> For security
> They can have anti-theft devices in them in case they are stolen
> Security devices can include ink which ruins a product if the seal is broken
> Food products have tamper-evidence seals to show if they've been opened
How does packaging preserve products?
> Some products deteriorate in air
> Sealed packaging can keep the product airtight
> However plastics and composite materials are now widely used
What are composite materials?
Materials such as card and aluminium foil laminated together
Name the three ways packaging can have an environmental impact?
> In the materials
> In the process
> In the waste produced
Give an example of packaging materials that have an environmental impact
Plastic uses crude oil which is a finite resource
Give an example of processes that have an environmental impact
Moulding plastic uses energy which comes from burning fossil fuels that emits carbon dioxide and contributes to global warming
Explain how waste that has an environmental impact
It is mainly disposed of in landfills, if it non-biodegradable it will be there for centuries
How can you reduce the environmental impact of packaging?
> REDUCE, the amount and avoid unnecessary packaging and use eco-friendly packaging (like paper) where possible
> RE-USE, reduces the amount of new packaging but requires them to be transported and cleaned
> USE SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS, for example corn starch is biodegradable and polystyrene is not
> RECYCLE, use the materials to make the same or new products
> USE RECYCLED MATERIALS, it saves resources but can be more expensive
How must manufactures label products?
> They have to include certain information by law
> The information must be accurate
> If labelling is wrong or misleading it could be breaking the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations
What is the hazard symbol for harmful substances?
^^ this is IRRITANT - harmful has a 'h' instead of 'i'
What is the hazard symbol for flammable?
What is the hazard symbol for explosive?
What is the hazard symbol for an irritant?
What is the hazard symbol for an environmental hazard?
What does the Kitemark symbol show?
> That the product has been approved by the British Standards Institution (BSI)
> They have met standards for safety and quality of design
What doe the CE mark show?
> They have met the EU standards of safety
> They can be sold in europe
Why might a company want to show it meets certain standards in safety and quality?
> People are more likely to buy 'approved' designs
> People will buy more/pay more for them
How do manufactures use labels to inform about use?
They tell you how to:
> Use it
> Maintain it
> Store it
> Specific safety information
How can labels give information about disposal?
> It can tell you if it is recyclable
> It can tell you where to recycle it
> The Wheelie Bin symbol shows you should dispose of the electrical equipment in a suitable collection site
What does plastic packaging usually contain?
What type of plastic it is so it can be sorted for recyclying
What does marketing strategy use to aim at a target group?
What is branding?
It allows companies to make people recognise their products in a positive way
How can companies use memorable graphics in branding?
> Using a simple, different logo
> Easy to recognise
> Printed onto materials, products, packaging, transport and uniforms
How can companies use well-design graphics in branding?
> They get a message across to it's specific target market
> Use colours and typefaces aimed at that group (appeals to them)
> Builds a brand image
How can companies become strong brands?
> Brands such a NIKE can be recognised by logo without need for words
> They have effective branding and marketing
Where can products be advertised?
> Television, cinema and radio can target specific groups based on when they are played and becoming talking points
> Paper advertising can also be targeted
> Internet reaches a wide audience but can be annoying
> Billboards are seen regularly by large numbers of people but the advertising is not targeted
How can companies improve brand image?
> Sponsoring teams or events such as charities to improve how people see you
> Involving celebrities to reflect your image and convince consumers you have expertise
How can display help sell products?
> Packaging makes it clear what the is and entice people
> They can make it stand out
> Point of sale promotions include signs that stick out - attracting attention
> Free sample and demonstrations also work
What is strength?
It's ability to withstand forces without breaking
What is hardness?
It's ability to withstand scratching, rubbing or denting - important for tools that cut
What is plasticity?
> If it can change shape permanently without breaking or cracking it has good plastic qualities
> This means it should be malleable (can be moulded) or ductile (made into wires)
What is brittleness?
> Brittle materials cannot withstand much stretching
> They are likely to crack or break
What is toughness?
> The opposite of brittle
> It absorbs impact without breaking or snapping
What is durability?
> It's ability to withstand repeated use
> They can withstand wear and tear and are resistant to corrosion
How do the functional requirements effect choice of materials?
> What demands will be made on the material (e.g. carry lots of weight)
> Will it be used indoors or outdoors - if it will corrode
> The look may need to fit in an enviroment
How does the availability of materials effect choice of materials?
> If it is available in suitable, standard sizes
> If it isn't in standard sizes it is expensive and hard to use in manufacture
How does the production method effect the choice of materials?
> Some materials are easier to join
> It must suit the production method
How does economics effect the choice of materials?
> How much you need and how expensive that makes it
> If it is one-off, batch or mass produced
How is paper made?
> Trees are cut down and taken by lorry to a paper mill
> The bark is stripped off and the wood is cut into smaller parts
> The small bits of wood are heated with chemicals to make a mushy pulp
> The pulp is washed and bleached to turn it white
> It is pressed flat between rollers, dried and cut to size
What is cartridge paper?
High-quality and textured surface
What is layout paper?
Strong, thin and translucent
What is grid paper?
It has square or isometric patterns on it used for presenation
What is tracing paper?
Translucent and used to copy images
What is the difference between paper and board?
Board is above 200gsm
What is solid white board?
> It has a high quality bleached surface ideal for printing
> Used in primary packaging
What is corrugated board?
> Using a lot in secondary packaging
> It has a fluted inner core with two outer layers
What is duplex board?
> It has a different colour and texture on each side
> The one side that is seen is smooth for printing
What are the standard sizes for paper?
> A1, A2, A3 ect (A1 is the biggest - A6 would be small)
How can you finish paper and card?
> aluminium foil is used in food packaging as you can print on the paper side
> Foam board cores contain polystyrene foam - it is stiff and lightweight, used for making models and posters
> Polyethene coatings can make it water proof for water cups
What is the difference between ferrous and non ferrous metals?
> Ferrous contain iron
> Non-ferrous do not contain iron
What is an alloy?
Combations of metals used to make metals with the best properties possible
What are the properties and uses of cast iron?
> Very strong if compressed but brittle if dropped
> Used in bench vices, car brakes and manhole covers
What are the properties and uses of mild steel?
> Iron + carbon
> Dull silver/grey
> Strong, cheap but rusts
> Used in car bodies, screws, nuts, bolts, nails
What are the properties and uses of stainless steel?
> Iron + carbon + chromium + nickel
> Shiny and silvery
> Hard, doesn't rust but expensive
> Used in surgical equipment sinks and cutlery
What are the properties and uses of aluminium?
> Light grey
> Lightweight, not corrosive, not that strong and expensive
> Used in aeroplane bodies, cans and ladders
What are the properties and uses of zinc?
> Non- ferrous
> Blueish grey
> Not very strong, resists corrosion
> Coats steel on nails and watering cans
What are the properties and uses of copper?
> Reddish gold
> Soft, malleable, ductile, conducts electricity
> Wiring, pipes and pans
What are the properties and uses of brass?
> Copper + zinc
> Strong, resists corrosion, malleable, ductile and a good conductor
> Used in door handles, taps, locks and electrical parts
What are the properties and uses of silver?
> Silvery white
> Soft, malleable, ductile, very good conductor, expensive
> Jewellery and expensive cutlery
What are the properties and uses of pewter?
> tin + copper + antimony
> Silvery blue
> Soft, cheap
> Jewellery and small ordiments
What shapes and sizes do metals come in?
> Rods and Bars
> Pipe or tubes
How are metals produced?
> They are extracted from the earth as an ore
> They are crushed and heated
> They are refined to remove impurities
> They are cast (moulded and cooled)
> Rollers can shape it
How can you treat metals to change their properties?
> Annealing - heating it and cooling it slowly to make it softer, more ductile and less brittle
> Hardening - rapidly heating and cooling it to make it harder but brittle
> Tempering - cleaned and gently heated to make it tougher and less likely to break
How can you coat metals?
> Plastic coating
How do you paint a metal?
> A primer like red oxide is needed for steel so the coats can form a strong bond
> Add a top coat
> The top coat is available in different colours and finishes - for example water proof for outdoor use
How do you plastic coat a metal?
> Heat the metal evenly
> Put it quickly in a fluidised powder (a fine powder with gas passing through it)
> It is placed back in the oven where the thin coating of plastic fuses to the surface
How do you plate a metal?
> Add a thin layer of a corrosion-resistant metal using electrolysis
> You use a bath of chemical including the dissolved metal and an electric current solidifies the metal on the object
How do you lacquer a metal?
> A thin layer of cellulose, gum or varnish is applied to leave a transparent coating
> This acts as a barrier against tarnishing and oxidising
What are thermoplastics - give an example
> Moulded by heating and can be remoulded
> They easily form shapes but don't resist heat well
> They are easy to recycle
> Acrylic is hard and shiny
> PVC is brittle, cheap and durable
What are themosetting plastics - give an example
> Once they've been moulded they cannot be remoulded
> They resist heat and fire
> They undergo a chemical change when heated and become hard and rigid
> They are non-recyclable
> ER (epoxy resin) is rigid, durable and corrosion resistant
How are plastic made?
> Some are synthetic (made from crude oil), some are natural (made from plants)
> Oil is extracted by drilling
> It is heated in a refinery which separates it into different chemicals (fractional distillation)
> The chemical (monomers) are linked together to make polymers (polymerisation)
What shapes and sizes are plastics available in?
> Films and rolls
> Sheets, rods and tubes
What finishes can be used on plastics?
> They are already resistant to corrosion and decay
> Wet and dry paper followed by a buffing machine can improve appearance
What do electrical circuits require?
> Complete circuits
> Insulators around wires
> Voltage supply (battery or mains)
What does a resistor do?
They reduce the current in a circuit to not damage delicate components - they are measured in ohms
What does a transistor do?
They are electronic switches that changes a small current into a larger current
What do capacitors do?
They store charge and are measured in farads, in a camera, they release charge quickly for the flash
How can a circuit be broken down?
Into an input, process and output
Give examples of input electrical devices
> Light-dependent resisors
Give examples of output devices
What are integrated components?
> Intergrated circuits (ICs) or chips are small electrical circuits with many components
> They are built to perform a function
> They are used in musical greetings cards and calculators
What do mechanisms do?
Change the input motion into an output motion
What do gear trains do?
They have toothed wheels that interlock and transmit or change rotary motion
What do rack and pinion gears do?
> Turn rotary motion into linear motion
> They are use on steep tracks to stop it moving backwards
What do worm drives and worm wheels do?
> Change the direction of rotation through 90 degrees
What do bevel gears do?
> Change the direction of rotation through 90 degrees
What are levers?
Used to give mechanical advantage
> First class ones have a pivot between a load and effort
> Second class ones have a pivot at one end, effort on the opposite and load in the middle
> Third class ones have a effort between a load and pivot
What do pulleys do?
> Help lift load
> One pulley changes the direction of the force needed
> Two or more pulleys makes the weight feel lighter
What are linkages?
They connect different parts of a mechanism
> Simple linkages transfer forces and change the direction of motion
> A bell crank changes the direction by 90
What do pneumatic cylinders do?
They use compressed air to push a piston down a cylinder, air pressure is converted to linear movement
What do chain and sprocket mechanisms do?
They transfer movement and are found on bikes
Give examples of permanent fixings
> Double-sided sticky pads
> Rachet rivets
> Snap rivets
Give examples of temporary fixings
> Velcro, uses two-part hook and loop system
> Magnets fix things to metal surfaces
> Prong paper fasteners join paper and card together in movable joints
> Hooks can hang displays
> Treasury tags are cheap and loose
> Drawing pins
What are bindings?
They hold sheets of paper together
What is a comb binding?
> Punch holes, put a plastic comb in
> The book lies flat can be added to and is easy to read
What is a spiral binding?
> Plastic coil is inserted down the spine
> Wiro binding is similar but doubled
What is a saddle stitching?
> Folded in the middle and stapled
> It doesn't hold many sheets and is very cheap
What is perfect binding?
> Folded together in sections and glued to the spine
> Holds lots of sheets but can't lie flat
What is a thread-sewing binding?
> Sewn in sections with a soft cover
What is case-bound binding?
> Thread-sewn with a hard cover
What are standard components?
Common fixings and parts that manufactures buy instead of making them themselves
What are the benefits of standard components?
> They are mass produced at low cost
> It saves time and is more efficient
> Specialist machinery and extra materials aren't needed so it saves money
> Designers can use standard components in their designs
What are wood screws?
> Standard component
> Turned by a screwdriver into wood
> The head can be round, countersunk, slotted and cross heads
What are self-tapping screws?
> They cut their own holes
> Used in metals and plastics
What are machine screws?
> Have a straight shank and are used with washers and nuts
What are bolts?
> Similar to machine screws but with shaped heads that can be tightened with spanners
What are knock-down fittings?
> Blocks and brackets allow furniture to be easily assembled and taken apart again
> They are fast but not strong
> They are assembled using screwdrivers and allen keys
> They are used in flat-pack furnature
What are cornstarch polymers?
> Made from maize so are renewable
> They are biodegradable
> They are used as more sustainable plastics, saving oil and landfill space
> They make clear, flexible packaging
What is precious metal clay?
> A binding material that contains particles of metal
> Makes jewellery
> It is easy to work with, like clay
> When it is heated it forms a solid metal which can be polished
What are thermochromic materials?
> They change colour with heat
> Thermochromic inks can be used in warning patches for heat, they are cheaper than electronic warnings
> Thermochromic dyes can be used in textiles and materials
What is polymorph?
> A thermoplastic material that can be shaped and reshaped
> It is heated in hot water and used in modelling
What is nitinol?
> A memory-shape alloy
> When cool they can be reshaped, if you heat them back up they will return to their original shape
Name some safety precautions
Ventilation, gloves, apron, tie hair back, face-shield, goggles, safe materials, store flammable liquids carefully and turn off machines when they aren't being used
What does the consumer protection act say?
> The designer should make sure their product doesn't present unnecessary danger to the customer
> the manufacturer shouldn't contaminate the product with harmful chemical from production
> Put safety warnings on it
> Recall it if it is dangerous
What tests could you carry out to ensure safety?
> Research materials carefully and test them
> Use standard components because they've already been tested
> Make prototypes and carry out simulations
> Get electrical items PAT tested -portable appliance test
> You can test it in CAD software
Give an example of a company that judges quality
Which? are an independent group that tests things and gives them scores to help buyers
Which laws protect consumers?
> The consumer protection from unfair trading regulation (claims made by manufactures must be true)
> The general product safety regulation (no one can sell something unless it is safe)
> The sale of goods act (they must work for a resonable amount of time)
> Furniture and furnishings (fire safety) regulations (they must not be flammable and not give off toxic fumes when burnt)
What is sustainability?
Not causing permanent damage and not using finite resources
What is planned obsolescence?
> They are designed to become useless (e.g. you can't replace broken parts)
> Products that are very up to date such as mobile phones quickly go out of fashion
> It is bad for the enviroment because materals and energy are needed to replace the product
> If they were designed to last they would be durable and have parts you could replace
What is carbon footprint?
> The amount of greenhouse gases released by making something
> Fossil fuels are burnt to provide energy for production, transport and use
> The distance it travels from production to use it product miles
> If a product is energy efficient it reduces the carbon footprint
What are the 6 Rs?
Repair, reuse, recycle, rethink, reduce and refuse
How are products recycled?
> They can be sorted at home into boxes and brought to recycling centre
> Magnets can separate metals
> Infrared can separate plastics
> They are processed, paper is made into a pulp, glass and metal is melted
What is social responsibility?
> Making sure no ones health or way of life is harmed
> They can make jobs
> Fair trade make sure developing countries are paid fairly, if they have the logo they've met international fair trade standards
Name some saws and their uses
> Panel saw - for wood
> Tendon saw - for wood
> Hacksaw - for plastics and metals
> Coping saw - for curves
Name some machine tools and their uses
> Circular saws - straight cuts
> Band saws - straight or curved
> Jigsaw - straight or curved cuts but it is slow
Name some drill parts
> Bradawl makes a pilot hole
> You can use a brace, hand drill or power drill
> Twist bits are used for small holes
> Countersink bits widen the opening
Name some shaping hand tools
> Wood chisels
> Cold chisels
> Bench planes
Name some shaping machine tools
> Planer and thicknesser give a consistent cross section
> A milling machine makes accurate, flat surfaces
> A bench grinder has abrasive wheels and shapes
> Lathes rotate the product into the lathe
How can sheet materials be folded?
> A sheet material folder is marked out and cut flat
> Feed the flat metal in and make the folds
> Corners can be joined with rivets
How can metals be bent?
> Some can be bent using a jig - cold worked
> Some have to be annealed before
> After this they are soft and when they are worked they go soft again 'work hardening'
How do you forge iron and steel?
> Heat them in a forge
> The forge is a fire with air blown in the middle to make it hot
> When it is hot enough it can be shaped on an anvil
> Hammering creates stresses so must be reheated and cooled slowly to smooth it out
What is laminating?
> Gluing thin strips of material together
> You apply glue and hold them in a jig
How are plastics folded?
Line bending is used for acrylic sheets
What is press moulding?
>The former/male mould presses into the female mould
> Which sets the thermosetting plastic into a permanent shape
What is blow moulding?
> A softened plastic is inserted in a solid mould
> Air is pushed in and expands the plastic to the shape of the mould
What is die casting?
A metal or plastic is melted and poured into the mould
What is injection moulding?
> The molten material is forced into a closed mould under pressure
> It is automatic and continuous
What is extrusion?
> The material is melted and passed through a die
> It produces long, continuous strips of the material
What is one-off production?
> Every item is different
> It is labour intensive, taking time and lots of skill
> Makes detailed designs and high quality products
> It makes made to measure things and special products
What is batch production?
> Specific quantity of a product is made
> They can be repeated
> Machinery and workforce are flexible and could change to make a different batch
> Uses jigs, moulds and cheaper products
What is mass production?
> Making thousands of identical products, like newspapers or cars
> It is used for the mass-market products
> The stages are broken down into stages with repetitive tasks
> It mainly uses CAD/CAM for the production line
> In the assembly line, it is put together
> Workers do a small part of the whole process
> Recruitment is easy, you don't need them to be highly skilled
> Makes basic designs and cheap materials
What is continuous production?
> It runs all the time
> It would be too expensive to stop and start so it is constant
> They make huge amount of one thing
> It's expensive to set up by the cost per item s cheap because it is so efficient
> It makes things like chemicals or aluminium foil
What is Just in Time?
> A JIT system delivers materials and components to as they are need and uses them straight away
> It saves space on storage
> They don't tie up money in unused materials
> However, it need the materials to be on time and fault free
What is commercial manufacturing?
> A system of parts that work together to form a function
> It may include subsystems that product different parts of the products which are then assemble to make the product
What are the three parts of a system?
> Input - material, tools and equipment
> Process - what happens
> Output - the result of the system, finished product
How do systems improve manufacture?
> They make them more efficient
> They can contain feedback loops for quality checks
What is data transfer?
> Data is transferred electronically from one computer to another using electronic data transfer (EDI)
> It is a direct transfer usually via the internet
> It means design and manufacturing can happen in different locations - remote manufacturing
What is software sharing?
> Where a computer software is available to many computers at once
> It uses a network
> Design files can be edited and opened by many designers
> It is useful for big companies
What is stock control?
> Computerised stock control systems check how much stock is left
> It is important in JIT manufacture so it can automatically order new stock when it begins to get low
What is video conferencing?
> Manufacturers can use the live video to talk to suppliers and designers and improve communication
> It can be used to oversee the manufacturing process
How can you make manufacture systematic and efficient?
> A trained and organised workforce
> Specialised buildings or workshops
> Good communication systems
> Organisation of tools, equipment and materials
> Efficient design and production processes
> Systems for disposing of waste
> Risk assessment and safety procedures
How can you improve working layout?
> Have the stages of the assembly line close to each other - preventing a waste of time and energy
> The processes should follow on from eachother
What is a manufacturing cell?
Where the processes are in a closed loop
What is a working triangle?
> The sink, fridge and oven are planned so you don't have to walk far between them
How does a good layout of manufacture help quality?
> Finishing can happen in clean areas
> If they don't travel far they are less likely to be damaged
> Carefully planning storage helps you fit more into a warehouse
How should you layout materials and equipment?
> Controls should be easy to reach and clearly labelled
> Materials should be organised logically with sections and labels
> Barcodes can help organise materials and control stock levels
> Materials should be stored carefully to avoid contamination
What is CAD?
> Computer aided design
> It is used to model and change your designs quickly and experiment with colours and materials
> You can see it from all angles
What is CAM?
> Computer aided manufacture
> CAD software used x,y,z coordinates to work out the dimensions
> CAM machienes are computer numerically controlled (CNC) to follow the deisgn
> Examples are laser cutters or laser printers
How are templates used?
> They are easy to make
> They reproduce identical shapes and shape time when marking out things
> They need to be strong and hard wearing
> They can be used to check the accuracy of components
How are jigs used?
> They guide tools to make sure they are positioned correctly
> They come in different shapes and sizes and are made specifically
> They speed up production and the making process
> It means there is no complex marking out or cutting to be done
How are moulds used?
> To reproduce 3D shapes
> Mainly used in plastic manufacturing
> It is accurate and can make detailed shapes over and over again
> Industrial moulds can be expensive so they need to be certain of the design
How does CAD/CAM improve accuracy?
> You can see if they will fit together
> You can use rapid prototyping to check the design
> You can draw them accurately
> CAM produced detailed products (laser cutters)
> CAM produces identical produces
> CAM reduces the amount of finishing
How is repetition easy in CAD/CAM?
> Repeating patterns can be made by copying and pasting the design
> You can rotate and mirror things
> You only need to draw it once and then it can be reproduced several times
How is CAD/CAM more efficient?
> They are very quick
> You can redraw designs quickly
> It is quicker than by hand
> Machines don't take holidays, sleep or get ill
What is lithographic printing?
> Using plates of aluminium sheets
> Works because oil and water do not mix
> The ink only sticks to the plate where the water is not present
> There are several rollers used and they can each use different colours
> Quality is controlled by a high speed camera, if it detects it is off the process stops and the rollers are reset
> Paper and car, metal
What is screen printing?
> It is very simple and good for batch production
> The ink is pushed through a fine fabric mesh called a squeegee
> It uses stencils to only print on the right pars
> It can be semi-automatic and is cheap, used in short print runs
> Many material
What is die cut and folding?
Where a machine cuts the appropriate part of the design and uses duller parts to fold them
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