Terms in this set (100)
Who was wundt?
Father of experimental psychology
What did Wundt study? (5)
•in 1879, opened an institute for experimental psychology in Germany
•separated psychology from philosophy.
•used a structuralist and reductionist and methods such as introspection to try to uncover what people were thinking
• suggested introspection
•experiences analysed in terms of its component parts eg sensations, emotional reaction etc
psychological method which involves analysing your own thoughts and feelings internally
2 types of conditioning in behaviourism
classical and operant
Who suggested classical conditioning?
define unconditioned stimulus
a certain stimulus eg food
Define unconditioned response
natural reflex eg salivation
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response eg bell
a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
Where else is classical conditioning seen?
in babies getting attached to mothers
5 principles of classical conditioning
high order conditioning
When stimulus similar to to the original CS (eg bell w/different pitch) produces the CR (eg salivation)
When stimuli similar to original CS doesn't produce CR (can be achieved by withholding the UCS [food] when similar stimulus is used)
When CR (salivation) isn't produced as a result of CS- happens when CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS following it
Define spontaneous recovery
When previously extinct CR is produced in response to CS- happens when CS is presented again after a period of time during which it's not been used
Define higher order conditioning
When new CS (eg light) produces CR because animal associates it with original CS- achieved by consistently presenting the new CS before the original one
What is behaviourism also known as?
Who starter behaviourism?
3 main assumptions of behaviourism
•nearly all behaviour is learnt
•animals and humans learn in the same ways
•the 'mind' is irrelevant
3 exceptions to 'all behaviour is learnt'
•inborn reflexes (blinking dirt out of your eye)
•inborn instincts (running from danger)
•genetics may contribute to development of schizophrenia
animals and humans learn in the same ways:
principles by which we learn are the same- based on idea that we can form stimulus-response associations between stimulus and our actions
The 'mind' is irrelevant:
We can't directly observe and measure a person's thinking- we obtain measurable data by studying behaviour.
advantages of using animals
•easy to keep
•don't know they're being observed and so act 'naturally'
•we can do things (eg shocks) that we couldn't to humans
Define operant conditioning
animals learning from the consequences of their actions
When something desirable is obtained in response to doing something
When something undesirable is removed when something happens (eg: if you pass the test, you have no extra homework)
1938, rats showing operant conditioning
Skinner method? (4)
•created 'skinner box', placed one rat in at a time
•each box had a variety of different stimuli (speaker, lights, floor with electric shock and a food dispenser, which released food when a lever was pressed)
•hungry rat placed in box
•time taken for rats to learn that lever=food was recorded
Initially, rats would run around the cage until it accidentally pressed the lever and it was rewarded with food. The more the rat was put back into the box, the quicker they got at learning where the lever was.
Skinner conclusion? (2)
•rats can learn through operant conditioning
•behaviour (eg pressing lever) can be positively reinforced (by receiving food)
Skinner evaluation? (3)
•animals (not generalisable to humans)
•reduced reliability (sample size was small)
•lots of evidence to show that animals and humans can learn by conditioning
conditioning weaknesses? (5)
•conditioning can't explain all human behaviour (we also learn by observation eg social learning theory)
•most research is animal-based (hard to generalise to humans)
•different species have different capacities for learning by conditioning
•genetics seem to limit and influence what different species can learn by conditioning
•seen as unethical
Who developed social learning theory?
define Social learning theory
Learning to behave by watching others
3 ways behaviour is learnt?
observing and imitating another person (model). requires identification with the model (certain attractive qualities and characteristics are picked up on).
4 mediations (cognitive processes) in SLT
•reproduction (if you think you can reproduce the behaviour)
What type of theory is SLT?
reductionist (basic), as it ignores and biological explanations
bandura method (5)
•36 girls and 36 boys with a mean age of 52 month took part
•matched ptpts design (children matched on ratings of aggression shown at their nursery school)
•1st condition: observed aggressive adult models playing with bobo doll
•2nd condition: observed non-aggressive models playing with other toys and not bobo
•3rd condition: control condition (no models) with different types of toys
•children exposed to aggressive models imitated a lot of their aggressive behaviour
•those in non-aggressive and control conditions shower barely any aggressive behaviour
aggressive behaviour is leaned through imitation of others behaving that way
bandura evaluation? (5)
•provides evidence for SLT
•strict control of variables (reliable results, replicable)
•low ecological validity
•hard to generalise results (limited sample, all from same nursery)
•studied aggression in children- ethical problem
What does bandura's study show?
reinforcement isn't needed for learning
Why might have bandura's study been a study of obedience?
children were shown how to play with the doll
What does Cognitive Psychology explain?
behaviour through cognitive processes
4 ways to explain behaviour (cog)
perception, language, attention and memory
What is the cognitive approach like?
3 main principles of Cognitive Approach
•mental systems have a limited capacity
•a control mechanism oversees all mental processes
•there is a two-way flow of info
What is the brain described as in the CA?
a processor- has data input into it, and output from it
What do some parts of the brain form?
define sequential process
One process must finish before another starts- occurs in more demanding tasks
define parallel process
info travels to and fro along lots of paths at the same time- occurs with familiar tasks
3 differences between brains and computers:
•humans influenced by emotional and motivational factors
•humans have an unlimited but unreliable memory (computers are the opposite)
•humans have free will
contains all the info you know about an object, action or concept (helps you organise and interpret info and experiences)
What happens when info is consistent with a schema?
It gets assimilated
What happens when info is inconsistent with a schema?
accommodation occurs, schema has to change to resolve the problem
3 types of schemas
role, event and self
define role schemas
ideas about the behaviour which is expected from someone in a certain role, setting or situation
Define event schemas
Also called scripts- info about what happens in a situation
define self schemas
info about ourselves (based on physical characteristics and personality, as well as beliefs and values)
problem with schemas?
Can stop people from learning new info (resulting in prejudice and stereotypes)
bartlett method? (3)
•English ptpts read native American fold tale
•ptpts asked to recall story after different lengths of time
bartlett results? (2)
•ptpts changed story to fit own schemas
•as time increased, the amount of info remembered became a lot less
people use their own schemas to help interpret and remember the world around them
bartlett evaluation? (2)
•lacks ecological validity
When did cognitive neuroscience emerge?
define cognitive neuroscience
approach in psych which naps human behaviour to brain functions
3 cognitive neuroscience methods
define lesion studies
Looking at brain damaged people to see how behaviour is affected
using electric and magnetic fields to measure brain activity and brain waves
pinpointing areas of the brain which are active when a task is performed (eg PET scans)
2 Congnitve Approach strengths
•considers mental processes
2 Cognitive Approach Weaknesses
•research ofter carried out in artificial situations
•fails to take individual differences into account
3 biological components that explain human behaviour
hormones, genetics and the nervous system
What can we do because of the biological approach?
remove and modify unwanted behaviour using biological treatments (eg meds for mental illness)
Why do we use animals to research the biological approach?
They can inform us about human behaviour and biological influence, because we share a lot of biological similarities
evidence of evolution's part in human behaviour
behaviours such as phobias and aggression may have evolved because of the survival advantage they gave (Darwin)
genotype of a person is the genes they have
characteristics their genes produce (eg hair colour)
What are genes believed to explain?
psychological traits (eg gender behaviour, intelligence, personality)
meta-analysis of 40 twin studies
gottesman results? (2)
•identical twin w/ schizophrenia:48% chance of development
•17% in non-identical twins
schizophrenia has a strong genetic basis
Heston method? (3)
•47 adopted children whose biological mothers had schizophrenia
•control group: 50 adopted children whose biological mothers didn't have schizophrenia •children followed up as adults, given intelligence and personality tests
Heston results? (3)
•5/47 in experimental group became schizophrenic
•0 in control group did
•another 4 in experimental group classified as borderline schizophrenic
supports that schizophrenia has a genetic basis
Heston evaluation? (3)
•interview data unreliable, affected by social desirability bias
•interviews are effective at getting data in a naturalistic way
•control children may not have shown symptoms yet
3 areas of psychology which have been investigated with brain structure
aggression, memory, psychopathology
brain structure link to aggression
bard and mountcastle (1948)- found damaging areas of cats brains led to changes in levels of aggression (in hypothalamus and amygdala)
brain structure link to memory
milner et al (1957)- HM was unable to use LTM effectively- hippocampus was damaged
brain structure link to psychopathology
szeszko et al (1995)- found differences in the prefrontal cortex when comparing people with and without schizophrenia
Too much/little of a particular neurotransmitter may produce psychological disorders
2 strengths biological approach
•very scientific-provides evidence to support or disprove a theory
•if there's a biological cause, biological treatments can be developed to help
2 weaknesses of the biological approach
•doesn't take into account individual's environment, family, childhood or social situation
•gives people or groups an excuse for their behaviour