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KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER: KEY TOPIC 1, 'C1250-C1500: MEDICINE IN MEDIEVAL ENGLAND'
Terms in this set (55)
Which theory is Hippocrates famous for creating?
The Theory of the Four Humours (liquids)
What were the 'four humours'?
Blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile
What did this theory claim caused illness?
If the humours were imbalanced
Why was this theory revolutionary compared with all previous theories?
It claimed illness had natural causes
Which Roman doctor adopted this theory, and came up with his own theory on how to treat these imbalances?
What was Galen's theory for treating illnesses identified by the theory of the four humours called?
The Theory of Opposites
What methods were used to treat people for imbalanced humours?
Purging and bleeding
What did Galen create, on the human body, which was still being used during the Medieval period?
An anatomical drawing of the body
Why did it contain so many mistakes (for example, the kidneys, jaw bone and liver)?
He dissected animals (pigs, dogs and apes)
What event, taking places in 473 AD, meant that much of the knowledge gained by Romans & Greeks was lost?
The Fall of the Roman Empire
Which institution controlled the majority of medical thinking during the Medieval period?
Other than the Theory of the Four Humours, what types of causes did medieval people believe caused illness?
Which illness, in particular, was seen as a punishment from God?
What had Galen written that meant that the Church wanted to maintain his work and resist change?
"The body is perfect...there must be a God"
What method, when physicians did not conduct the dissection themselves, meant that Galen was not challenged?
What was the name given to the people who carried out small surgeries as well as giving haircuts?
What was the name given to the belief that illness spread through corrupted or bad air?
Which invention helped to spread new medical beliefs, particularly during the Renaissance?
Gutenberg's Printing Press
When was it invented?
Which 13th century-military surgeon said that "Galen & Hippocrates were old dogs who needed replacing"?
Henri de Mondeville
What three ways did the Church suggest someone could undergo spiritual healing?
Prayer, paying for a mass and fasting
It was believed that the king's touch had healing powers; how many people did Edward I aim to touch per year?
What did physicians use to diagnose illness?
Astrology (star charts)
What three ways could a barber surgeon let blood in order to balance out the humours?
Cutting a vein, leeches and cupping
What was the name of the instructions provided by physicians informing people how to live a healthy life?
Regimen Sanitatis (healthy regime)
What was set up in Oxford, Cambridge, Bologna, Montpellier, Paris & Padua that made medicine professional?
What was the name given to those people who mixed herbal remedies from manual such as 'Materia Medica'?
What places, used to provide care for the sick, began to expand during the Medieval period?
By 1500 how many were there?
How many of these hospitals were owned and run by the Church?
When did the Black Death reach England?
At its height, how many people were being buried in London each day?
How many of the English population are said to have died from the Black Death?
What symptoms did those infected display?
Coughing blood & black boils (buboes)
What did the majority of medieval people believe had caused this plague?
God deserting them
What unusual event, taking place in 1345, did some interpret as a forewarning of the terror ahead?
Mars, Jupiter & Saturn were misaligned
Which potion did physicians often recommend to heal the sick?
Theriaca (a mixture of about 70 items)
What was the name of the physician who kept the Pope alive by placing him next to a great fireplace?
Guy de Chauliac
Which group of people whipped themselves through the streets of London to show God that they were sorry?
What law did the government bring in to prevent people spreading the plague by moving to new areas?
New people had to be isolated for 40 days
Hippocrates publishes his Theory of 4 Humours
Galen theorises the Theory of Opposites
Roman Empire falls; The 'Dark Ages' begin
The Islamic physician Rhazes challenges Galen
Avicenna publishes the Canon of Medicine
Articella is used as the medical textbook
Mundinus' dissection; first since Herophilus
Montpellier University runs annual dissection
The Black Death arrives in Europe (Italy)
The Black Death arrives in England
King Edward III demands the streets be clean
The extremist Catholics Flagellants emerge
The Black Death begins to subside
Great Schism; Catholic Church is damaged
Johannes Gutenberg invents Printing Press
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