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OCR GCSE HISTORY-PEOPLES HEALTH
Terms in this set (31)
an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
the four humours
The four humors are black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood, each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis. One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu like symptoms develop. ... Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone
is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs.
the great plague
The Great Plague of 1665/1666 was the last major outbreak of bubonic plague in Great Britain. The last recorded death from plague came in 1679, and it was removed as a specific category in the Bills of Mortality after 1703.
'searchers' were appointed, who established whether members of a household had contracted the plague.
was used as a method of controlling plague, houses with plague victims inside would be shut in and no one would be allowed in or out
an old-fashioned term for an outdoor toilet
The Gin Craze was a period in the first half of the 18th century when the consumption of gin increased rapidly in Great Britain, especially in London.
1751 Gin Act
an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 24 Geo. II c. 40) which was enacted in order to reduce the consumption of spirits, a popular pastime that was regarded as one of the primary causes of crime in London.
back to back houses
back to backs were built to house the rapidly increasing working population that swelled Britain's expanding industrial towns
Food adulteration is the process in which the quality of food is lowered either by the addition of inferior quality material or by extraction of valuable ingredient.
a flushed toilet
London suffered a series of cholera outbreaks during the mid-19th century, Snow theorized that cholera reproduced in the human body and was spread through contaminated water. This contradicted the prevailing theory that diseasses were spread by "miasma" in the air.
Dr John Snow
John Snow (15 March 1813 - 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. He is considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology, in part because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, in 1854.
Sir Edwin Chadwick, 1800-1890, English social reformer. For many years an assistant to Jeremy Bentham, Chadwick applied Bentham's utilitarianism to the reform (1834) of the Poor Law and to the development of public health measures, particularly in his The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population (1842).
the public health act 1875
passed to combat filthy urban living conditions, which caused various public health threats, including the spread of many diseases such as cholera and typhus. Reformers wanted to resolve sanitary problems, because sewage was flowing down the street daily, including the presence of sewage in living quarters.
public health act 1848
the 1848 Public Health Act. ... After much campaigning by the Health of Towns Association, and another severe outbreak of cholera in 1848, the government was forced to act, and the Public Health Act of 1848 was passed. The Act as it was passed was not perfect but was an important step forward
Laissez faire is the belief that economies and businesses function best when there is no interference by the government. It comes from the French, meaning to leave alone or to allow to do. It is one of the guiding principles of capitalism and a free market economy.
The great stink
The Great Stink was an event in central London in July and August 1858 during which the hot weather exacerbated the smell of untreated human waste and industrial effluent that was present on the banks of the River Thames. This alerted government to the sewage problem is London.
he built the sewage system in London
rickets became present in Britain because of the lack of nutrition in food, and the general lack of food among poor people, also vitamin D hadn't been discovered yet so people were ill informed on the types of food needed
From the first interventions in the Public Health Act 1875, council houses could be homes fit for heroes, general housing aimed at the working classes, general housing for all, parts of a slum clearance programme or just homes provided for the most needy.
1952 'Pea Souper'
The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952 was a severe air-pollution event that affected the British capital of London in early December 1952. A period of cold weather, combined with an anticyclone and windless conditions, collected airborne pollutants—mostly arising from the use of coal—to form a thick layer of smog over the city. It lasted from Friday, 5 December to Tuesday, 9 December 1952 and then dispersed quickly when the weather changed.
clean air act 1956
The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952. It was in effect until 1964, and sponsored by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government in England and the Department of Health for Scotland.
Dr James Niven
Spanish Flu was a pandemic that spread to Britain towards the end of World War 1 and Niven was Manchester's Medical Officer of Health made it his responsibility to coordinate the city's response. James Niven told government to close to stop people passing on the flu, which killed quickly because it developed into pneumonia within hours. His advice was unheard of at a time when industrial production was returning to its height at the end of the 1914-18 war because people were trying to rebuild their lives.
1908 old age pensions
The Old-Age Pensions Act 1908 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1908. The Act is often regarded as one of the foundations of modern social welfare in the United Kingdom and forms part of the wider social welfare reforms of the Liberal Government of 1906-1914.
Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox material to create immunity to smallpox
Louis Pasteur's 1885 rabies vaccine was the next to make an impact on human disease.
The middle of the 20th century, the creation of vaccines for polio. Researchers targeted other common childhood diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella, and vaccines for these diseases reduced the disease burden greatly.
1948 National Health service
July 5 1948 - The NHS is born. When health secretary Aneurin Bevan launched the NHS at Park Hospital in Manchester, it is the climax of a hugely ambitious plan to bring good healthcare to all.
1980s the outbreak of HIV and AIDS swept across the United States and rest of the world, though the disease originated decades earlier. Four h's, Haitians, homosexuals, heroin users and demo-deratives
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