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Terms in this set (88)
in 2015, how many people had full time contracts?
how many people had part time contracts?
how is health measured?
by morbidity, the degree of ill health someone experiences
Extraction of raw materials eg mining
Manufacturing eg factory worker
Services and skills eg teacher
High tech and research eg researcher
Highest level of decision making, top business executives concentrated in STEM employment
Example of UK primary sector
China clay pit, st Austell, cornwall
Example of UK secondary sector
Nissan car factory, sunderland
Example of UK tertiary sector
David lloyd, Hatfield
Example of UK quaternary sector
Cambridge (East England
Example of UK quinary sector
London (SE England
How has employment in the UK changed over time? - Clarke Fisher Model of economic activity
Primary - steady decline from v.high to v.low employment from pre-industrial to post-industrial // Secondary - gradual increase from low to middle employment from pre-industrial to middle of industrial, where begins to decrease slowly into post-industrial just above original value // Tertiary - steady increase from 0 in mid pre-industrial to v.high in post-industrial // Quaternary - rapid increase from 0 in post-industrial // Quinary - slow increase from 0 in mid post-industrial
Reasons for decline in primary sector in UK
Cheap imports causing competition // Mechanisation of production decreasing need for labour // Raw materials being used up
Reasons for decline in secondary sector in UK
Technological advances allowing outsourcing more accessible as can communicate // Spatial division of labour - less rules, lower wages
Reasons for rise in tertiary sector in UK
Rising disposable incomes requiring services or luxuries // Demographic changes eg marrying later and fewer children - more time and money on services
3 main employment types
Employees with contracts - 2015 18.4m full // Workers - agency staff and volunteers // Self-employed - free lancers, consultants, contractors
Controversial aspects of work (4)
Gender pay gap - men paid average 10% more // Zero hour contracts - no obligations from employee or employer // Black market - illegal migrant working (2015 made criminal offence), low pay, poor condition // Temporary and seasonal eg agriculture, tourism - low pay and unreliable
Pay differences in UK
South east generally - highest median earnings. Eg Westminster nearly 40k // London has large range from 17k - 35k+ // West coast generally - lowest median earnings Eg Blackpool - one of few areas earning less than £7 a day - £15,481/year
Inequalities in pay within job type
Managers, directors etc - £907.90 weekly wage. // Skilled trade eg builder - £486.50 // Sales and customer service - £237.10
Economic activity impact on social factors
Scarborough: Very low economic activity eg woodlands 0.5%, Newby 1.1%. generally low good health eg Falsgrave Park 21.8%, Castle 22.7%
Manual blue collar jobs - long hours, exposed to harmful chemicals // Variations in income in sector type - malnutrition, housing // Black minority ethnic // Spatial distribution of food - inner cities, takeaways. // NHS - post-code lottery
Gender - women 81.6y, men 77.2y//North-South divide - eg Harrow, NW 65y males expected to live 6y+ than those in Glasgow - Glasgow effect
Exam success - future income level//Free school meals - lower educational level and more likely to continue to under-achieve. 16y - 31% achieved 5+ GCSE 2013//Gender - boys more likely to have lower result
What are the four key functions
Administrative - local authority and national government offices // Commercial - shopping centres, recreational facilities // Retail - shops selling range of goods // Industrial - where goods are manufactured in factories
Reason for functional change in rural areas
Loss job shops and pubs, decline of agricultural employment, growth of tourism // pubs double up as shops etc // farm diversification
Reason for functional change in urban areas
Large towns had admin functions // grew as result of industrial revolution // deindustrialisation occurred especially in northern cities // growth of retail and out of town shopping // online shopping and banking led to loss of shops and banks // towns compete to become retail destinations
Functional areas vs administrative areas
Functional areas are often different from administrative areas eg extending economic functional role outside administrative boundary
What is Gentrification
Affluent people move into area eg Portland Road, Notting hill - slums now sold for multimillion prices // Brixton - gated community replaced schools, £400,000 homes - young denied. Local shops forced out and record shops gone
What is Studentification
Students cluster in areas of towns and cities eg Headlingly, Leeds - 2/3 of the 10,000 residents are students
Headline characteristics and trends of demographic structure in the UK
• Population grew by 7.1%, but by 9.0% in urban population and 2.5% in rural.
• In 2011, In England and Wales, 86% of people are classed as having a white ethnicity
Why do places change?
Physical factors - sea level rise, rapid erosion, eg Happisburgh, Norfolk - 250m land lost to sea over 250 years
*Accessibility and connectedness - development of HS1 (2007) villages in Kent popular rural alternatives to London for property prices
*historical development - deindustrialisation eg closure of Redcar steel plants in Teesside
* local and national planning - National Infrastructure Plan (2010) designated Bicester as new garden city - 13,000 new homes and a new railway station
* globalisation - cost-effective for manufacturing to transfer operations worldwide eg Asia
*change in consumer trends
Measuring place change
Land use change - photography or Google Earth // employment trends - dominant sectors, employment level or type available on Office of National Statistics // demographic trends - pop growth ONS // level of deprivation - IMD
How have regional influences shaped Scarborough?
Weaponness Sports Village development - Granted planning permission in May 2015 (completion in Spring 2017), Range of indoor and outdoor sports and leisure facilities eg 2000 capacity community football stadium with sports hall indoor swimming pool // Potash Mine, 5km to the south of Whitby been approved = over 500 jobs // The Strategic Housing Market Assessment (2015) identified a need for 450 affordable homes per year 2011-2016 // The council has lent £9m to a German business creating the £18m Alpamare water park.
How have national influences shaped Scarborough?
2016 - Became an 'opportunity area' (local partnerships formed with early years providers, schools, colleges, businesses, charities and local authorities ensuring all children and young people reach their full potential)
IMD = 48.55, it's in the 5th quintile
How have international influences shaped Scarborough?
transport links to Hull which runs frequent services to northern Europe // 92% of population from Europe, 87% born in UK
How have global influences shaped Scarborough?
Manufacturers based in Scarborough include the Plaxton Company (a division of Alexander Dennis) which has been building coaches and buses since 1907, and Cast Iron Radiators Ltd.// UK's first free Wi-Fi seafront and harbour area and one of Europe's fastest internet connections (100MB) due to recent investment in digital connectivity // Scarborough Sea Life sanctuary, owned by Merlin Entertainment
How have regional influences shaped Kings Cross?
underused industrial wasteland transformed - 67-acre site is largest redevelopment project in Western Europe; it includes: A university (with 650 student housing units), 1700 residential units, and 450,000 sqm for businesses // 2012 - Islington and Camden councils plan to deliver better services, facilities, and public spaces -meet the needs of the growing population
How have international influences shaped Kings Cross?
Open borders to EU citizens = More trade, TNCs, more visitors, and economical migration
How have global influences shaped Kings Cross?
Britain's fastest internet speeds, you can download a two-hour HD film in 25 seconds (27.55 mbps) // multiple TNCs eg Amazon and Google// 35% children living in poverty
How did an area become a successful region
San Francisco - 1929 stock market crashed not one bank crashed in SF, TNCs embrace business climate. Capitalise on ideal conditions today.
Pos and negs of how success has changed area
San Francisco POS added 64,000 jobs reducing unemployment to 3.4%, global magnet for specialised skills fuelling economic growth, raid expansion of biotech and digital media companies choosing to locate in Mission Bay // NEG growing inequality, top 1% richest households averages $3.6M, other 99% $81,094, rising congestion - 20% Bay Area commutes are longer than 20 mins, long term residents out priced by unaffordable housing
Solutions to problems caused by success
San Francisco Increase construction of smaller, affordable units// provide incentives eg reduced tax to colleagues and vocational programs to cater for needs of employees // invest in new infrastructure
How did an area become a less successful place
The Rust Belt USA Overseas companies competition eg China produce cheaper coal and steel // mechanisation of mining losing jobs // lower wage costs in south-eastern USA led to relocation of car industries - 80,000 jobs lost Detroit, The Rust Belt USA - population shrunk 60% // 1/3 citizens live in poverty // only 12.1% live with someone with at least a bachelor's degree // 50% functionally illiterate // 60% of children live in poverty
Problems caused by unsuccessful place
The Rust Belt USA - population decline and brain drain // high unemployment and crime // reduced revenue as consumer spending falls
Facts on a rural unsuccessful place
Cornwall, UK - due to loss of mining industry and contraction in agriculture and fishing // neighbourhoods eg Redruth consistently high deprivation levels - receive European development funding. // up to 40% housholds live on less than £10,000 per year // high living costs means low spending power
Perceptions differ due to
Income - younger people in high-earning jobs enjoy fast life eg London // unskilled low earners have negative views // Age - retirees attracted to slow life eg good health care // Environment - positive view in rural areas
Priorities for regeneration
Sink estate// gated communities // commuter villages // declining rural settlements
High level of deprivation and crime originating from 30 years government policy segregating low income groups // council housing built to improve living conditions // 1946 - 1970 2 x likely to have mental health problems, 11 x likely to be unemployed, not in education or in training, 9 x likely to live in jobless household // eg Barracks, Glasgow
1980s whole cities gated in inner-ctiy locations eg London Docklands // Built when gentrification occurs to segregate locals seen as a threat eg The Goldings
Small towns eg Sevenoaks, Kent - many second homes have affluent populations and low levels of deprivation. Require fewer services as commuters aren't in demand. EG Wealth Corridor, Itchen Valley, Winchester - 1900 residents, M3 and fast mainline rail services into London, house and land prices increase rapidly
Declining rural settlements
Limited access to services - measured by average travel time to shop, GP surgeries and pharmacies etc // EG Llansilin, Powys. 700 residents, nearly half of community in 10% most deprived for access to services on Welsh IMD, very poor broadband and phone coverage
Level of engagement can be measured by
Election turnout (national and local) // community groups (development and support for)
UK level of engagement
National election turnout - 7.5M eligible voters not registered in 2015 // 66.1% eligible voters did not vote // only 44% 18-24y voted
Comparison of level of engagements
30.2% more voted in Westmorland and Lonsdale, Cumbria than Manchester Central in 2010 General Election // 21.4% more voted in WLC than MC in 2015
What role can community groups play in regeneration?
9000 grant organisations eg National Gov, Supermaket chains // running local allotments, open spaces // youth mentoring schemes
Factors affecting level of engagement
-length of residence, new migrants may have less strong attachments than longstanding locals
-levels of deprivation, higher levels may be associated with anti-establishment views
Causes of conflict between contrasting groups x 4
Lack of political engagement and presentation // ethnic tensions // inequality // lack of economic opportunity
Evidence of conflict between contrasting groups x 3
Studentrification // Barton Farm 2014 // Northern Powerhouse 2014 // London Riots 2011
Barton Farm 2014
intial preparations for 93 hectare greenfield mixed scheme on Winchester's northern fringe. By 2025 - 2000 new homes, 800 of which social housing, primary school, nursing home. More affluent support anti-development
Northern Powerhouse 2014
empower cities to work collectively, conflict between cities over rivalries and identities
London Riots 2011 causes
Social and economic inequality - brutal cuts and forced austerity// weak police force - exploited// high youth unemployment - most vandals under 20 in own neighbourhoods// rank opportunism // racial profiling - ongoing response, blacks searched more frequently
London Riots 2011 needed response
Introducing new facilities // increase jobs // new homes // school improvements //
Regenerating an area
Broadwater Farm - Haringey Borough Council propose demolition of area, spending £140 M - many residents oppose to scheme due to years spent rebuilding area eg weekly club for youths run at church, church operating food bank, fear injection of private money pushing them further out
Sources showing need for regeneration
Population (gender, age)// employment // housing (social) // services // crime // IMD // Environmental quality survey // newspapers // media // ONS census
IMD - index of multiple deprivation
Set of measures used by Gov to identify relative levels of deprivation. 38 indicators in 7 categories eg income, employment, crime. Ranked according to IMD value, the higher value the more deprived // ADV variety of factors, weighted // DIS not direct measure, new data not always attainable
GIS - geographical information systems
Device for capturing data by a computer. Shows socio-economic and environmental data
Indices of cultural and ethnic diversity
% of ethnic population - more groups = greater diversity. Lower groups have more dominant ethnicity. Cartographic techniques used - pie charts, compound bar graphs // ADV comparable
Environmental quality survey
-3 - +3 personal survey eg level of pollution, litter, quality of building
What are the health statistics in hertford?
South hertford 33.2%
How do you measure education?
What are the statistics for education in hertford?
What are the statistics for employment in hertford?
What are the statistics for health in Scarborough?
What are the statistics for employment in Scarborough?
What are the statistics for education in Scarborough?
What are 3 inequalities in pay levels across the economic sectors?
Richest 1% of the population received 13% off all income and accumulated as much wealth as the poorest 55% of the population put together in 2014// top 10% of employees earned over £52,248 annually// bottom 10% earn weekly wages of £288
What is quality of life?
The level of social and economic well-being experienced by individual or communities measured by various indicators such as health, happiness and income.
What is the IMD?
Index of Multiple Deprivation for areas. Useful statistic to compare different areas
What are the 7 indicators in the IMD?
Income, employment, education, health, crime, barriers to housing and services and living environment
What do successful regions have?
High rates or employment, inwards migration, level levels of multiple deprivation, high property prices, skill shortages in both urban and rural areas.
What is deprivation?
The damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society
What is regeneration?
Improving an area which has been experiencing decline
What is a commuter town?
A town whose residents normally work elsewhere but in which they live, eat and sleep in
What is a gated community?
Residential community containing strictly controlled entrances for vehicles and people, often characterised by a closed perimeter of walls
What is a sink estate?
Housing estates characterised by high levels of economic and social deprivation and crime, especially domestic violence, drugs and gang warfare
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