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Terms in this set (99)
What is development?
Means a positive change that make things better
Usually means that people have a better standard of living and quality of life
What is a development gap?
The difference in standards of living between the rich and the poor
How can you measure devleoment?
Economic development eg GNI
Social development eg HDI (life expectancy, Number of years at education, GNI per head)
What is GNI and how useful is it?
Gross national income- the total value of goods and services produced by a coutnry,plus the money earned and paid to other countries
It is expressed as per head (per capita) of the population
Useful- Those with High GNI- does not mean they good quality espeicially if its only because populaiton is small
Low GNI-May have good living but large population
It gives an average
What is HDI and how useful for?
Human devlopment Index
Links wealth to health and education- aims to show how far people are benifitting from coutnry's economic growth
0-1 1 hihgest
Useful- Combines many factors
What countries are classed as NEEs?
BRICS-Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
MINT-Malaysia,Indonesia,Nigeria and Turkey
How useful is Birth rate as a measure of development?
How useful is Death rate as a measure of development?
How useful is infant mortality as a measure of development?
How useful is number of doctors per 1000 people as a measure of development?
How useful is literacy rate as a measure of development?
How useful is percentage to clean water as a measure of development?
What may affect the usefullness of social and econimic measures of development?
What is a demographic transition model(DTM ) and what was it based on?
It shows the change over time to a population
Bases on changes in western countries eg UK
How is population affected?
Migration-immigration and emigration
What is the gap between birth rate and death rate called?
What stages does a natural increase occur?
What stages does a natural decrease occur?
What does a country in stage 1 display in DTM and why?
High Birth rate-More children likely to die so more born to still have enough
High death rate-lack of healthcare,
Both fluctuate because of disease, famine and war
Population fairly stable
What countries/places are in stage 1
Traditional rain forest tribes- in parts of Indonesia, Brazil and Malaysia
rural communities of Bangladesh
What does a country in stage 2 display in DTM and why?
Death rate decreases- Healthcare gets better
Birth rate remains high-culture, less rights for women and old practises eg farming occur and so lots of children are needed to help
What countries/places are in stage 2?
Birth rate-39/10000 and death 14/1000
80% = farmer
Yemen, Afghanistan, the Palestinian territories, Bhutan and Laos and much of Sub-Saharan Africa
What does a country in stage 3 display in DTM?
Birth rate rapidly drops- more live in cities and work formal jobs so it expensive to care for children so no longer benefical + more rights for women
Death rate continues to decrease but more slowly- healthcare still improving
What countries/places are in stage 3?
NEE's India, Nigeria China Kenya Brazil
What does a country in stage 4 display in DTM?
Low birth rate-Most people work formal jobs and live in cities(meaning more effiencent energy+ more rights for women)
Low death rate- Really good healthcare
Birth rate tends to fluctuate depending on the economic situation
Population growth usually due to immigration
What countries/places are in stage 4?
Most coutnries at further stafes of developemtn MEDC's-USA, UK and France
birth rate eg USA- 13/1000 death rate- 8/1000
What does a country in stage 5 display in DTM?
Birth rate is very low and falls below death rate
Death rate increases slighly due to ageing population - due to continued good healthcare and better techonolgy
Total populatin therefore decrease
What countries/places are in stage 5?
Italy,Germany,Japan, coutnries in eastern europe
Birth rate in Germany-8.2/1000 lowest in world and death rate( still increaseing) 11.2/1000
What is a population pyramid?
Shows percentage or number of males and gemales in each age group
What is the dependency ratio and how is it worked out?
The proportion of people below ( aged 0-14) and above (over 65) normal working age
Add together the two groups t hen divide by those aged 15-64 (working population) and multioply by 100
What does a low depednacy ratio show?
The greater the number of people who work and less independant
More commons in HICs
How do you read a population pyramids?
Understanding the overall shape- If its wider in cetain sections it means it has a higer propotion of that section
Interpreting details- Bars may be longer or shorter than those above or below-Shorter-high death rate-maybe because of war or famine
How does a population pyramid differ for each stage of Demographic transition model?
Bendy traingle stage 1
Traignle shaped-Stage 2
Ice lolly chaped-Stage 3
Sateg 4 Wider inmiddle and taller
Stage 5- Wider in middle near bottle
What are the physical/environmental causes of uneven development?
Landlocked- no aces of seas- No sea trade, easier defense eg UK whereas Africa most landlocked
Climate-Hot- Diseases spread easily eg Malaria-less healthy population to work
Extreme weather- Slow development- loss of life + repair damaged infrastructure
Near rich countries-Could trade better as more there can afford higher prices
Near unstable countries- More refugees + Defence
What are the economic causes of uneven development?
Level of debt- Can't invest in country
Trade-As rich countries have a lot of power in trading they want to pay asl ittle of possible for raw matierals which comes form LIC's +Porcessing takes place in richer countries - adds value
What are the historical causes of uneven development?
Colonism-After independance this can lead to politlca unstabilty holding back development
War- Diseases and lost of life +Economy deprived- less builig + however some can gain power like USA
What are the political causes of uneven development?
Stable goverment- Enocurage investors + good decisions for economy and people
War-More spent on defence and war=less educaiton and healthcare+Loss of life= weak economy
What are the social causes of uneven development?
Quality of education
Better education- Higher paying jobs-tax +More doctors
Lack of drive for social betterment
Unproductive work force
Bad social cultures- crime and gambling
How does developemnt in a country affect health?
4/10 death under 15
Complications with chidlbrith-main cause of death among children
Infectious diseases main cause of death eg HIV/AIDS lung infections
7/10 death over 70
Only 1 in every 1000 deaths is among children under 15 years
Chronic disease main cause of death eg cancer, cancer or diabetes
Lung infections are only main infectious cause of death
What is an immigrant and emigrant?
Moves into/Move out
What is an economic migrant ?
Moves voulntairly to seek better life- job or education or healthcare
What is a refugee?
A person forced to move from their country of origin as result of civil war or natural disasters
What is migration?
Movement of people from place to place
What is a displaced person?
Person forced to move from their home but stays in their country of origin
What happened in the middle east, refugess?
Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq
Syria-civil war since 2011- claimed 470,000-11.5% of population killed/injured-Four million fled to near country-Turkey,Jordan and Lebanon-No job
Thousands across Mediterranean- overcrowden boats and unsafe boats or by land trough turkey and eastern Europe- Some capsized +lives lost - Aug 2015 Germany would process assylum to anyone who reach Germany-1.1 mil came So in March 2016, The EU and turkey deal
What is the migration situation with the UK?
Long history of accepting migrants
Since 2000- 1.5 mil economic migrants -2/3 polish
Give tax + do manual jobs
Pressure on services such as health and education
What strategies can reduce development gap?
What is investment and how can it reduce the development gap?
Countries +TNC's invest money and expertise in LICs to increase their profits
Investment= Development of infrastructure, construction of dams-electricy, improvements to habours/ports, development of new industries
It provides employment and income from abroad- economy grows-poverty decreases, education imporves, people become more politcally involved, better goverment
What happeneded with foreign investment in Africa?
China most important trading patner- More than 2000 invested billlions $-Mainly in energy, mining, construction and manufacturing eg Power plant(Zimbabwe), Hydro-electricity(Madagascar) and railway construction(Sudan)
It has led to new roads, bridges, stadiums etc
New headquaters fo African Union-China $200mil
Uganda google-New office(now six in subharan Afica)
South Africa Walmart-Wants to buy local retailer Massmart
Ghana ADM + General electric-cocoa processing plant + Leases aircraft to African airlines
What is industrial development and how can it reduce the development gap?
It brings employment, higher incomes and opputunites to invest in housing ,education and infrastructure, now more can invest into other sectors (multiplier effect)
Malaysia,Brazil,Mexico and China all followed programmes of industrialization
What happened with industrial development in Malaysia?
Development of its natural resources such as oil and gas, palm oil and rubber
Made use of foreign investment to expolit theses reources and develop a thrivign manufacturing sector
Higlighed developed mixed economy
Florusihing trade links
What is Tourism and how can it reduce the development gap?
It leads to investment and increased income from abroad, which can be used for improving education, infrastructure and housing
Bad as their dependacy of tourism wil be stress in times of economic recession
Caribbean (Bahamas) British Virign Islands, Indian ocean islands(seychelles)
What types of Aid is there?
Short term-Emergency help usually natural disaster
Long term-Sustainable aid seeks to improve resillence eg walls to reduce effects of drought
Bilateral- Aid from one country to another(usually tied)
Multilateral-Richer goverments give moeny to an international organisation such as World Bank which redistrubute money as aid
Tied- Givenwith certain conditions eg recipent has to spend the aid on donor country's products
Voluntary-Money donated by general public redistrubuted by NGOs
What forms can aid take?
Money (Grants or loans)
Emergency supplies (tents, medicines, water etc)
Foods(rice or wheat)
Tecnology(tools or machinery)
Skills( eg Doctors or engineers)
How can aid reduce the development gap?
Only aid long term adnd freely given
Enable them to invest into development porjects eg roads,electricty and water manamgent- long term benefits
What does the UK aid?
It spends 0.7% of GDP on overseas aid-target by UN
3 biggest reciplents of UK Official Development Assistance(ODA) -Pakistan, Ethiopia and Bangladesh
66 mil in poverty
What is intermediate technology?
Sustainable technolgy that is appropiate to the needs, skills, knowledge and welath of local people
It must be sustainable for the local envriioemtn and must not people
How can intermeidate reduce development?
Takes form of small scale projects often assocaited with agriculture, water or health
Able to help themselves
Intermiate technolgy example
Adis Nafis Northern ethopia
Small dam bluit to form resevoit near village
Irrigated land with fruit trees given
Elephatn grass- divide field and prevent soil eoriosn
Is trade fair?
Tariffs paid on imports- makes imports more expensive and less attractive than home produced goods
Quotas are limits on quanityt of goods that can be imported. Usually applied to primary products so efect poor countries
eg Ghana is charged by EU for coco powder and choclate but not beans and so its forced to export beans rather than devleop its own industry of choclate which is more valuble
What is free trade?
Countries do not charge tariffs and quoata to restict the trade with each other
WTO aims to make trade easier
How can free trade reduce the debelpment gap?
As it allows the poor to trade freely
If they are in a trading group then countried are encouraged trade between member countried including them
Richer coutnried cannot shop aorund for cheaper prices
Members can command greater share of the market
Members are able to get higher prices for th eir goods
What barriers are there to trade
Fincal support form goverments to help goverments
Rich coutnried can afford to pay subsdries and so their prodcuts are cheaper than those produced by poor country
What trading groups do poor countries?
CARICOM (Carribean Community)
UEMOA (West african economic and monetary) and ECOWAS
What is fair trade?
Sets standards for trade with poorer countries
It helps ensure the producer sin poor coutnried get fair deal
How does it reduce the development gap?
Improving lives of farmers
Part of the price invest in local community devleoment products
How have poor ocuntried bluit up debt?
Many poor countries borrowed money to develop their economies by investifatin in industry, manufacturing and infrastrucutre
Low commidity prices reudced valvue of ecports and high oil prices increases th eprice of mports
What is debt releif?
When the poor countries debt are cancelled if they qualigy:
Can mamgne th eir own finaces
No corruption in their goverment
Agree to spen the saved debt money on education, health care and reducing poverty
How can debt relief reduce deleopment gap?
Country vcan use money for quality of life
Tanzania now free educaiton abaible
It doesnt as it can lead to further debt as they expect it to be written off
Corrupt govement skeep the money rather than use it on the poor
What is microfinace?
Small scale fincacial support avalible directly from banks set up espeicaly to help the poor
How has microfinace reuce delopmet gap?
Allows small businesses to occur
Women usuall hav e to take loans from assets whihc they dont have
What is dependancy theory?
The dependency theory evolved in the late 1950s and is based around the idea that developed rich countries (core) are limiting the level of development of the poorer countries (periphery) from the control of the world economy. The most developed countries are able to exploit less developed countries through the use of their economic and political power.
How does dependancy theory shwo control of western coutnies?
rich countries imposing trade barriers and conditions for loans
unbalanced trade - poor countries sell materials cheaply but buy expensive products
the selling of unessential products to poor countries
poor countries getting into debt
25% of aid received by African countries each year is used to repay debt rather than build infrastructure.
Whats wrong with dependacy theory?
written in the late 1950s so it is out of date.
natural disasters, lack of resources, conflict are just a few examples of things which may limit development that isn't taken into consideration in the Dependency theory.
What is gross domestic product?
the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
Why is Gross doemstic product a good measure of developemtn?
Shows the production of a country suggesting whether there is many industries meaning many people are working and getting income and being helathy enoguht to work
However it does not take into account social measures directly and it also very hard to collect data for some industry such as udnergrpund also the money may be from natural resoruces showign the ocuntry dependant rather than developed
Highest gdp is China, US, India, Japan and germany
Per capita it isLuxembourg Switzerland Macau Norway and Iceland
What is top down devleopemtn, give examples?
This means that management and funding is imposed from the top such as by the national government.
One example of a top-down strategy aiming the help bridge the development gap is debt relief.
Three Gorges Dam in China helps with flodo control and makes hydroelectric power allowing ships to travel on the Yantze and jobs
Many had to relocae for resevoir, acrhlogica sites flooded and farmers downstream dont get floodwaters
What is bottom up developement, give examples?
Lred by NGOs and communities
often using local skills and resources.
Bottom-up development schemes are projects that are planned and controlled by local communities to help their local periphery area. They are not expensive because they use smaller, more appropriate technology, which the local people will have to pay for.
Micro hydro scheme Peru eg Chambamontera low population density meant they werent supplied electricty
What is the advantages and disadvantages of top down development?
Advantage- Large investment means larger change is possible with more efficent technology (eg produce less cabron fumes) making it useful in the long term Disadvantage: The country will more than likely go into debt from the loans borrowed to fund the scheme
the loan may also have some conditions attached, leaving the country to be under some external control over the economy or other development aspects of the country
jobs are not provided for the local people, instead a lot of machinery and technology is used
the end product will be expensive to operate
What are disadvantges and advantages of bottom up development?
Because the project is on a smaller scale compared to a top-down project, the environmental damage is often much less.
Many villagers soemtimes cant pay for such programme to occur
Only affect one area
What is Rostow Model?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Rostow Model?
Disadvantage-t makes the assumption that all countries start at the same level of development
It disregards the fact that a each country will have different qualities, quantities of resources, population or climate/natural hazards.
Out of date and based on the 18th and 19th century development of European countries
Doesn't take into account that European development came at a cost to other countries (colonisation).
Globalisaiton helped or not helped NEEs/LICs?
Helped- TNC benefit- New jobs+ wealth and forgein currency to lcoal econmies so spent on developemtn
Sharing of ideas, experiences and lfiestules of poeple and culture
More aware of deforestaiton and global warming
Not helped-In interests of rich coutnries with Poor countries there to provide cheap and raw materials
Dont benefit lcoal community as profits often sent to TNCs base
TNCs with their massive economies of scale drive smaller lcoal businesses out
Threat it will drown out lcoal economies, traditions and langauges inot mould of capitalist north and west eg Hollywood> bollywood
Globalisaiton helped or not helped HICs?
Increase awarenes of countries eg aid is qickly sent after tsunami in Jpan 2004
mprovements in wages
Good working conditions
Products and services can be charged at high prices
More flexibility in working location, i.e. working from home, and when people wor
Get cheaper labour and materials
Recognition of comapnies e amcdonals in LEDCs
Industry may thrive in LEDCs at expense of hobs in manufactring in UK and other MEDCs eg textiles
What are the three critical parts of the global economy?
What are networks?
the things which link countries together, e.g.: transport networks, phones, internet and trade blocs, known as 'spider's webs'
What are flows?
the things which move through the networks, e.g.: raw materials, manufactured goods, money, migrant workers, information and aid.
What are players and name some key palyers in global economy?
the organisations which influence the workings of the global economy, including transnational corporations (TNCs), the huge businesses empires, as well as many other global organisations.
World Trade Organisation (WTO), established 1995 - encourages trade between countries while ensuring it flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.
International Monetary Fund (IMF), established 1945 - 188 countries working together to provide financial aid between countries and promoting trade and high employment to try and reduce world poverty.
World Bank - Aims to reduce poverty around the world by providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries
What is purchasign pwoer parity and advantages of it as an indicator of developement?
The alternative to using market exchange rates is to use purchasing power parities (PPPs). The purchasing power of a currency refers to the quantity of the currency needed to purchase a given unit of a good, or common basket of goods and services. Purchasing power is clearly determined by the relative cost of living and inflation rates in different countries. Purchasing power parity means equalising the purchasing power of two currencies by taking into account these cost of living and inflation differences.
For example, if we convert GDP in Japan to US dollars using market exchange rates, relative purchasing power is not taken into account, and the validity of the comparison is weakened. By adjusting rates to take into account local purchasing power differences, known as PPP adjusted exchange rates, international comparisons are more valid.
What is sustainable developemnt?
economic development that is conducted without depletion of natural resources.
Why do coutnried need aid?
To provide food for people who have food shortages
Whty do coutnries give aid?
Countries may give aid for humanitarian reasons, this means that they want to relieve the suffering experienced by those in the recipient country.
They may want to improve the living standard of the people in the developing country by, for example, increasing the literacy rate.
Countries may give aid in order to benefit financially as a result of interest being repaid as a loan.
The donor country might get a better price for the produce it buys from the recipient country, for example better terms of trade on coffee.
A donor country will look closely at the political system of the developing country before deciding whether or not to give aid. It may decide not to send any aid to a country which is not a democracy for example.
The donor country may want to make an ally of the recipient country which may be useful in a future conflict.
Giving aid to a developing country may give the donor country prestige within the international community. It may also win support at home for the government of the donor country.
What is the brandt line ad why isnt it used anymore?
The brandt line was created by Willy Brandt in the 1980s. It is an imaginary division that divides the world into the rich north and poor south. More developed countries (MDCs) are in the northern hemisphere and Less developed countries (LDCs) are in the southern hemisphere (excluding Australia and New Zealand).
However, the brandt line is no longer considered to be accurate because many countries in the 'poor south' have become more developed since the 1980s - experiencing rapid growth (especially in manufacturing and tertiary
industries) in recent years. These countries are now classified as newly industrialised countries (NICs) examples include China, and Brazil.
Furthermore geographers now think that the Brandt line is no longer useful.
Advantages and disadvantages of informal sector?
Advantage: informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor especially as work is unskilled allowing uneducated to work
Disadnvtages; isnt taxed so not included in gdp
Advantages and disadvantages of formal sector?
Characteristics of a TNC?
Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are large wealthy corporations
· They are companies that have their headquarters in one country
· They often have factories and other branches spread all over the world
· Most TNCs have their headquarters in richer areas of the world
· Research and Development usually takes place in the richer country
· Production of goods usually takes place in poorer areas
What is dependancy ?
reigon has lttle control over TNC
What affect has globalization had onentertainemtn?
America doesnt dominate global box office
More movies catered to international audiences
Acess to hollywood encourages locals to change tradations/ cultures
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