39 terms

Urban futures

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AC
Advanced counties are more economically developed
LIDC
Low income developing countries are less economically developed
EDC
Emerging and developing countries are those where economic development is increasing
Megacity
City with more than 10 million people
World city
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy
Who were the first two mega cities?
Tokyo and Newyork
How many mega cities are there now (2014)?
28 and increasing
Where are most the mega cities?
Two thirds are in poorer countries (Asia- Mumbai, Jakarta)
Who were the megactites in 1950?
London, Paris, Tokyo and New York
Most world cities are...
Still in AC (Dubai) but some are in EDC
Rural urban migration
The migration of people from rural areas to urban areas.
Rate of rural urban migration in LIDCS are affected by...
Push factors
push factors
factors that induce people to leave old residences
Example of push factor for urbanisation
1. Natural disaster(floods, earthquakes-homes)
2. Mechanisation of agricultural equipment (farms require fewer workers,fewer jobs)
3. Droughts(land unproductive-ppl can no longer support themselves)
4. Conflict/War(flee homes)
Example of pull factor for urbanisation
1. More jobs
2. Better healthcare and education
3. Join family members
4. Better quality of life
Urbanisation- LIDC
Movement of people from the countryside to the cities. Also caused by internal growth (birth rate is higher than death rate)
What is internal growth?
When birth rate is higher than the death rate
What are a few economic consequences? LIDC/Urban
1. Not enough jobs for everyone, high levels of unemployment
2. Lots of people work for informal sector, not taxed or regulated by government (longs hours in dangerous conditions for small amounts of money)
3. Some may have no access to education so unable to develop skills needed to get better jobs
What are a few social consequences? LIDC/ Urban
1. Not enough housing, squatter settlements
2. Infrastructure cannot be built fast enough (don't have access basic services
3. High levels of crime
What are a few environmental consequences?LIDC/ Urban
1. Waste disposal devices cannot keep pace with growth of population
2. Sewage and toxic chemicals can into rivers (harming wildlife)
3. Road system can't cope. Congestion causes increase in greenhouse gases and air pollution.
Suburbanisation-AC
Movement of people from the city centre to the rural-urban fringe
Push factor for suburbanisation
1. Urban areas can be over crowded/ polluted and have high crime rates with small pieces of green land.
2. New houses outside the city for residents after clearing out low quality city centre housing.
3. Deindustrialisation in city centres (when manufacturing moves out of an area) leads people to leave cities and search for employment
4. Few local services due to short of money
Pull factor for suburbanisation
1. More open green space, family friendly, safer
2. Easier to build houses (planning laws more relaxed)
3. Improvement in public transport
4. Rents are cheaper
What are a few economic consequences? LIDC/Suburban
1. Ghost town after work hours, mainly offices. Shops and restaurants may struggle.
2. Unemployment increases, lower living standards and poverty
What are a few social consequences? LIDC/Suburban
1. Building become abandoned and derelict
2. People left behind are poorer and often foreign immigrants. Can lead to economic and ethnic segregation (separation of race).
What are a few environmental consequences? LIDC/Suburban
1. Wildlife habitats are affected by new housing that are built on open country side
2. More ground is concrètes over. Increases surface run off (water flows quickly overland) risk of flooding
3. Numbers of cars on the road increases, air pollution increases
Counter- urbanisation- some cities in AC
Movement of people away from large areas to smaller settlements and rural areas.
Push factors for counter urbanisation
1. Suburbs and city centres have problems with congestion & parking
2. Housing is often very expensive. Move away from city where prices are lower
Pull factors for counter urbanisation
1. Houses in smaller settlements and rural areas are often bigger and have more outside space than suburbs
2. Improved communication services (good internet connection), so many can work at home
3. Improvements in communication means some companies can move to rural areas (land is cheaper). Creates jobs in rural areas.
4. People can live further from the city and commute to work due to improved public transport
What are a few social consequences? ACS/ counter urbanisation
1. Existing houses are improved, some can affect the character of rural settlements
2. Can create commuter settlements (when ppl live in rural areas but work in city), causing shops to close due to reduced demands
3. Population dominated by older ppl as younger cannot afford the housing
4. Schools may close if area is dominated by older people
5. Rural roads and infrastructure may struggle to cope with the additional traffic
What are a few economic consequences? ACs/counter unrbanisation
1. Some survives in rural areas see and increase in business (restaurant) as newer residents are often professionals of retired who have higher disposable incomes
2. Wealthier residents who own cars will most likely travel to use shops in urban areas so rural shops and survives will close down
3. Make money from seeking unwanted land or buildings
What are a few environmental consequences? ACs/counter urbanisation
1. Additional traffic can cause increase in air pollution
2. Wildlife habitats are damaged from housing being built on open countrsides
Re-urbanisation- some ACs
Movement of people back into urban areas
Push factors for re urbanisation
1. Lack of jobs in rural or suburban areas
2. Fewer leisure or entertainment facilities in rural areas
3. High house prices in rural areas
Pull factors for re urbanisation
1. Land left derelict after movement of industry's as a result of deindustrialisation. People attracted back
2. Many unis are based in urban areas so young ppl move there for education with some staying
3. Young's want to live closer to work with good entertainment.
4. Other businesses get influenced by other businesses
What are a few economic consequences? ACs/re- urbanisation
1. New shops and services open which boosts he economy in the city
2. Jobs created in new businesses may not be accessible to the original residents many of whom are unskilled
3. Tourism may increase if city centre is improved. This brings money. Spent on improving area.
What are a few environmental consequences? ACs/re- urbanisation
1. Re-development of brownfield sites instead of greenfield site protects countryside wildlife habitats
2. Some brownfield sites have been left derelict so redeveloping may destroy urban wildlife habitats
What are a few social consequences? ACs/re-urbanisation
1. Less unemployment
2. Schools can benefit with an increased population
3. Original residents are often on low income and may not be able to afford housing as prices increase. Have to move to cheaper areas.
4. Tension between old and new residents (crime/violence)
5. New shops and survives may replace the original shops and survives for original residents
potential difference
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