28 terms

GCSE Classical Civilisation- Key Terms, Unit 1.1 The Gods

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

pantheon
literally, 'all the gods', the term given to the gods when we speak of them collectively, not to be confused with the Pantheon in Rome, which was a temple built by the Romans and dedicated to all the gods.
iconography
the symbols attached to a particular character when represented in an image
polytheism
the belief in many gods
anthropomorphism
giving human(anthropos) form (morph) or attributes to something that is otherwise not human
epithet
an adjectival word or phrase regularly added to a name to denote a personal or physical quality
cthonic
relating to the gods that were connected with the earth and the underworld
cornucopia
a horn shell that contained an endless supply of food and drink
diadem
a crown often associated with gods or kings
aegis
the breastplate or shield of Athena that contained an image of a gorgon in the centre
acropolis
literally, "high(acro) city(polis); the highest point in a Greek city, usually reserved for religious buildings
oracle
an utterance, often ambiguous or obscure, given by a priest or priestess (sibyl) said to be speaking the words of a god
lyre
a small Greek harp consisting of a sound box with two curved arms connected by a crossbar from which strings are attached
caduceus
a traveller's staff most closely associated with the god Hermes (Mercury)
Thebes
an ancient city in Greece that is the focus of many mythological stories, including that of Oedipus and his daughter Antigone
thyrsus
a staff associated with the god Dionysus, which was tipped with a pine cone or fennel, it could also be intertwined with ivy.
maenads
female followers of Dionysus, also called Bacchants
satyrs
in myth, half man, half goat attendants of Dionysus, known for their promiscuous nature
Etruscans
a group of peoples living in the region of modern Tuscany, Italy; the exact origins of the Etruscans are not known, although it is believed that they inhabited Italy from at least the ninth century BC. By the time Rome was founded they were well established in Italy.
Hellenes
a collective name for the Greeks, a group of peoples who shared the social and religious customs and language; named after Hellenus, the child of Deucalion and Pyrra, survivors of Zeus great flood.
Magna Graecia
lierally, 'Great Greece', the term used to describe the region of southern Italy and Sicily where there were many independent Greek cities, colonies of Greek cities established in Italy beginning in the ninth and eighth centuries BC. such as Siracusa (Syracuse) and Neapolis (Naples)
sarcophagus
plural, 'sarcophagi'; a stone coffin, especially one bearing sculpture and inscriptions
plebs
the lowest social class of Romans, making up the majority of the Roman populations; other classes include: patricians (senator class), equestrians (knights), freedmen and slaves
Cerealia
a major festival in honour of Ceres held in Rome every year between 12th and 19th April
Vulcanalia
a festival held in Rome each year on 23rd August in honour of the god Vulcan
Actium
port on the west coast of Greece, it is now called Preveza
votive
an offering to the gods
lararium
a small shrine to the household gods (lars) that was found in the atrium of Roman homes.
Bacchanalia
a Roman festival in honour of Bacchus