1. Coastal Environments
Terms in this set (84)
an erosional process where rocks are thrown at the cliffs by destructive waves. This can also be called corrasion.
where the speed at which destructive waves erode parts of a coastline is increased
Agents of erosion
the natural forces conducting erosion e.g. destructive waves, wind, rain etc
"an erosional feature made when destructive waves erode completely through a cave in a headland. E.g. Durdle Door, Devon, England.
"an erosional process where the debris/ rubble of rocks knocked off from the cliffs is knocked into each other by the movement of the waves. This gives smooth pebbles and, eventually, sand.
"the movement of water in a wave down a beach under the pull of gravity.
"a depositional feature made of a ridge of coastal sediments (sand, pebbles etc.) which is exposed at low tide. It is also an erosional feature where less resistant rock is eroded faster than more resistant rock either side resulting in an inlet (eroded land eating into the coastline). This gives a sequence of headlands and bays. E.g. Lulworth Cove, Devon, England.
"an erosional feature where less resistant rock is eroded faster than more resistant rock either side resulting in an inlet (eroded land eating into the coastline). This gives a sequence of headlands and bays. E.g. Lulworth Cove, Devon, England.
"a depositional feature found where the land meets the sea. Unconsolidated material such as sand and shingle (pebbles) is deposited by waves.
"a type of soft engineering where sand or shingle is added to a beach to replace material removed by erosion by destructive waves.
"the number of different species of plants and animals.
"an erosional feature made by the enlargement of joints by destructive waves.
"a type of soft engineering where the angle of a cliff is reduced to make it less steep and less likely to suffer from erosion by mass movement.
"individual sections of the whole shoreline management plan.
Coastal sand dunes
"an ecosystem formed where accumulations of sand are blown into ridges and mounds by the wind.
"where the land meets the sea.
"where one type of rock of a fairly uniform resistance to erosion is found where the land meets the sea. The rock outcrops run parallel to the coasts.
"the protection of aspects of the environment for the future benefit of people and wildlife.
"people who are especially interested in the protection and conservation of the natural environment.
"waves with a stronger swash than backwash. This results in the deposition of material such as sand on beaches which causes beaches to increase in size.
"a marine ecosystem based upon colonies of coral polyps (small animals with jelly like bodies) which build rocky structures from calcium carbonate.
"an erosional process where acids in the sea water dissolve rocks.
Cost benefits analysis
"the process that is gone through before a decision is made as to whether a project should proceed and how it should proceed.
"another term for a bay.
"narrow channels along which water flows in salt marshes and other areas covered by tides in estuaries.
"a depositional feature made of a triangular-shaped accumulation of sand and shingle (pebbles) that grows out into the sea where long shore drift from two different directions meet e.g. Dungeness in SE England.
"the land that builds out into the sea from a river's mouth when the river deposits its sediment load upon reaching the sea.
"the dropping of material such as sand that was being transported by a moving force such as long shore drift.
"waves with a stronger backwash than swash. This results in erosional processes like abrasion.
"where erosion of a coastline occurs at different speeds due to there being a mix of less resistant and more resistant rocks. This creates headlands of more resistant rock and bays where there is less resistant rock.
"where a mix of different types of rock with differing levels of resistance to erosion are found where the land meets the sea. This encourages differential erosion and the creation of headlands and bays. The rocks outcrop at right angles to the coast.
"a community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment e.g. a salt marsh or mangroves.
"the breakdown of rock and the transportation of the eroded material to another place (usually by long shore drift in the case of coasts).
"the area of land and water around the point at which a river's mouth meets the sea. The water will be brackish and tidal.
"a natural feature that is a drowned glacial valley caused by rising sea levels.
"a type of hard engineering. Large stones are placed in a cube made of steel wire mesh. These cubes are then stacked on top of each other.
"a type of hard engineering where a barrier made from wood, stone or metal is built to project out into the sea and interupts long shore drift causing the deposition of sand.
"the building of man-made structures protecting coastlines from erosion and flooding e.g. groynes and sea walls.
"a more resistant piece of land that sticks out into the sea e.g. Flamborough Head on the Holderness coast in NE England. Headlands are erosional features.
Hold the line
"where hard and/ or soft engineering is used to reduce or stop the effects and instances of flooding or erosion. The aim is to keep the coastline as it is and for there to be no more erosion.
"an erosional process where waves trap air under pressure in small cracks. When the air is released it knocks small pieces of rock off.
"rock that doesn't allow water to enter it e.g. clay.
"water entering a permeable rock or soil.
"the area of land within an estuary which is exposed at low tides and submerged beneath the sea at high tides.
"cracks in the rock.
"an area of enclosed brackish water trapped behind a bar.
Long shore drift
"the overall direction of movement of waves along a coastline. This transports (carries) eroded material e.g. sand.
"a type of soft engineering used to protect coastlines against flooding and erosion where an area of land is deliberately encouraged to flood and develop a salt marsh in order to protect more valuable land behind. E.g. Abbott's Hall Farm, Essex. This can also be called retreat the line.
"a coastal ecosystem usually found in the tropics created by the growth of mangrove trees which have special adaptations to enable them to grow in salty, coastal muds in intertidal zones. E.g. the Sundarbans in Bangladesh, SE Asia.
"actions carried out by the sea, e.g. destructive waves causing abrasion, which shape natural landforms like cliffs.
"the movement of material down a slope due to gravity in the form of rock falls, slumping and landslides.
"when by creating one set of jobs a whole series of jobs in support industries are also created. E.g. if a new factory is created then the factory workers will spend their wages in the local shops, cinema etc.
"not in my backyard. This is a word used to describe someone who doesn't want a development to happen next to their house but is happy for the development to go ahead somewhere else. To call someone a NIMBY is to criticise them for being hypocritical and selfish in that they don't want the development near them but are happy if it's near someone else.
"the way in which a coastline made of massive, blocky rocks e.g. limestone is eroded by the sea.
"water moving through a permeable rock or soil.
"rock that allows water to enter it e.g. till
"individuals, groups or organisations that have a vested interest in something. They can also be called stakeholders.
"the usual or most common direction that the wind blows from.
"a natural feature created by falling sea levels or land rising in elevation due to isostatic rebound (land rising after an ice sheet has melted). A beach and its associated features such as a wave cut platform will be found at a point higher than the current highest tides reach.
"land that used to entirely under water or under water for part of the day in a tidal zone e.g. a salt marsh which has now been drained and is used for farming or has been built on e.g. for a port, housing development or for industrial use.
"a type of hard engineering where barriers with holes deliberately made in them are erected to dissipate the energy of the waves.
"a natural feature created by rising sea levels causing a river valley to flood e.g. Milford Haven, South Wales.
Riprap/ rock armour
"a type of hard engineering where large boulders are stacked along a coastline. This can also be called rock armour.
"a coastal ecosystem found in the intertidal zones of estuaries.
"the material (silt, sand, pebbles etc.) carried by fluvial processes (streams, rivers and the sea - waves and log shore drift).
SMP - Shoreline management plan
"the plan drawn up to determine which parts of a coastline will be protected from erosion and flooding and how they will be protected with particular consideration given to reducing risks and costs.
"protecting coastlines from erosion and flooding using more natural processes that work with nature e.g. beach feeding.
"a depositional feature created when material such as sand being transported by long shore drift is dropped by the waves building up a narrow stretch of new land out into the sea often across a bay or estuary. This may become hook shaped. E.g. Spurn Head, NE coast of the UK.
"very low air pressure raises the height of the sea. Strong winds then blow the raised sea waves onshore onto the land causing flooding.
"occurring on the surface of the land. Sub-aerial processes causing the erosion of cliffs include action caused by the wind and the rain e.g. rainwater infiltrating permeable rocks in a cliff.
"the erosion of a coastline through rotational movement. This can occur if the cliffs are made of either unconsolidated, permeable rock e.g. till or a mix of permeable rock e.g. till and impermeable rock e.g. clay.
"an erosional feature created when an arch collapses leaving a column of rock standing separately to a truncated (shortened) headland. E.g. Old Harry at Old Harry's rocks in Devon, England.
"where there is a low pressure weather system (a depression) with rising air which causes sea level to rise. The waves of this raised sea are then blown onto the land by strong winds causing flooding at the coast and along tidal stretches of rivers.
"an erosional feature created when a stack collapses. It is the remaining base of the stack. E.g. Old Harry's son at Old Harry's rocks in Devon, England.
"the forward movement of water in a wave up a beach.
"erosional and weathering actions on land that create natural features/ landforms.
"a depositional feature where a spit grows to connect an offshore island to the mainland e.g. Chesil Beach on the south coast of the UK.
"large waves generated by tectonic activity usually earthquakes.
"erosion at the base of a feature e.g. a stack or a cliff that creates a wave cut notch. This undermines the feature and contributes to its collapse.
"a ridge of water formed by the circular movement of water near the surface of the sea.
"an erosional feature created when erosional processes remove rock from the base of a cliff leaving a gap under an overhang of rock.
"an erosional feature of gently sloping bare rock exposed at the base of cliffs and extending to the sea created during the process of parallel retreat.
"the breakdown of rock in situ (the fragments of eroded rock are not transported away).
water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater. It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water,