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Topic 2 - Bonding, Structure and Properties of Matter
Terms in this set (72)
Ionic, covalent and metallic
What are the three types of chemical bond?
Between metal and non-metal ions
Where would you find an ionic bond?
An electrostatic force of attraction between a positivity charged metal ion and a negatively charged non-metal ion
What is an ionic bond?
The sharing of electrons between non-metal elements
What is a covalent bond?
The electrostatic force of attraction between positive metal ions and negative free floating electrons in a lattice structure
What is a metallic bond?
An ionic bond
In which type of bond are electrons transferred?
Electrons from the outer shell are lost, forming a positive charged ion
In an ionic bond, what happens to a metal atom?
A dot and cross diagram
What sort of diagram can be used to represent an ionic bond?
They gain electrons to complete their outer shell and become a negatively charged ion
What happens to non-metal atoms in an ionic bond?
Losing electrons means that there are less negative charges than there are positive, leaving a net positive charge
Why do metals form positive ions?
Gaining electrons means that there are more negative charges than there are positive, leaving a net negative charge
Why do non-metals form negative ions?
What sort of ions do metals form?
What is the correct name for a metal ion?
What sort of ions do non-metals form?
What is the correct name for a negative ion?
What charge do group 1 metals form?
What charge do group 2 metals form?
What charge do group 3 metals form?
What charge do group 4 elements form?
What charge do group 5 elements form?
What charge do group 6 elements form?
What charge do group 7 elements form?
What charge do group 0 elements form?
To complete their outer shell and achieve a stable arrangement
Why do elements for charged ions?
Electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions, acting in all directions in the lattice.
What sort of structure is an ionic compound?
What is a giant, regular structure known as?
It does not show the actual shape of the compound, and it says nothing about their solubility
What limitations do diagrams have on showing the structure of an ionic compound?
The ability for a substance to dissolve in a solute
Simple molecules and giant covalent structures
What two types of substance have covalent bonds present
With overlapping rings, showing crosses and circles as electrons. As pairs of electrons without rings, as simple lines between symbols or as 3D moly mod structures
What 4 ways can you draw a covalent bond?
A single covalent unit joined with others to form a long chain
What is a polymer?
The single unit with brackets around with an n at the bottom
How is a polymer drawn?
A regular pattern
What sort of pattern is present in a metallic bond?
They become delocalised and free moving throughout the compound
What happens to electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms in metallic bonds?
Free electrons can carry energy/charge throughout the metal as they are free to move
Why are metals such good conductors or heat and electricity?
Solid, liquid and gas
What are the three states of matter?
In which state of matter are particles regularly arranged?
Liquids and gases
In which state of matter are particles randomly arranged?
Which state of matter is made of particles carrying the least internal energy?
Which state of matter is made up of particles carrying the most internal energy?
Particles vibrate around a fixed point
What movement is present in solids?
Particles are loosely bonded so can flow over one another
What movement is present in liquids
Particles are unbonded so are free to move
What movement is present in gases
Stronger bonds between particles
What causes melting points and boiling points to be higher?
The changing of state between a solid and a liquid
The changing of state between a liquid and a gas
The model infers no forces and that all particles are represented as solid spheres
Give a limitation of drawing the states of matter
s (solid), l (liquid), g (gaseous), aq (aqueous)
What are the 4 state symbols?
Dissolved in water
They are high
What can be said of the melting and boiling points of ionic compounds?
Ions are not free to move
Why do ionic substances not conduct electricity when solid?
The ions are free to move and carry charge
Why do ionic substance conduct electricity when in solution?
What bond is found in small molecules?
Gases or liquids with low melting and boiling points
What state of matter are small molecules usually found in?
Weak intermolecular bonds
What bonds are overcome in small molecules when they melt and boil?
As molecules get bigger, intermolecular forces get bigger
How do intermolecular forces change with the size of molecules?
Because they have no overall electric charge
Why do small molecules not carry a charge?
What is the melting point of giant covalent structures?
Because many strong covalent bonds must be overcome
Why is the melting point of giant covalent structures so high?
Very high due to strong metallic bonds
What is the melting and boiling point of metals?
Because their atoms are arranged in layers which can slide over one another
Why can pure metals be malleable?
Different sized atoms disrupt the regular layers so that they can no longer slide over one another
What does an alloy do to the structure of a metal?
How many covalent bonds are formed by each carbon atom in diamond?
How many covalent bonds are formed by each carbon atom in graphite?
Because each carbon has 4 covalent bonds instead of 3
Why is diamond harder, with a higher melting point, than graphite?
Once electron from each carbon is delocalised so can carry a charge throughout the structure
Why can graphite conduct electricity?
Graphite forms layers, which can slide over one another
Why is graphite soft?
A single layer of graphite
What is graphene?
Electronics and composites
What can graphene be used in?
Molecules of carbon atoms with hollow shapes
What are fullerenes?
Drug delivery in the body
What can fullerenes be used for?
Nanotechnology, electronics and materials
What can carbon nanotubes be used for?
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