WJEC Science Chemistry 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Contents of the Nucleus of an atom.
Protons and Neutrons.
What orbits the atom on shells?
Electrons.
The number of protons is always the same as the number of...
Electrons.
What is the charge of an atom?
Trick Question; Atoms have NO charge.
What is the charge of a proton?
Positive. (+)
What is the charge of a Neutron?
NO charge. (0)
What is the charge of an Electron?
Negative. (-)
What is the mass of an Electron?
Trick Question; Electrons have NO mass.
Why do Ion's have an uneven number of Protons and Electrons?
Because an electron has been either LOST or GAINED.
What is the Atomic Number?
The number of Protons or Electrons.
(The number on the bottom of an Element on the periodic Table.)
What is the Mass Number?
The number of protons and Neutrons in the nucleus.
(The number on the top of an Element on the Periodic Table.)
What is the Neutron Number?
The Neutron is the Atomic Number taken away from the Mass Number.
What is an Isotope?
An isotope is an element that has the same number of Protons but a different number of Neutrons. Making the Mass Number different.
What are the Physical Properties of Metals?
Conduct Electricity. High Melting Point.
Conduct Heat. High Boiling Point.
Malleable. Ductile.
What are the Physical Properties of Non-Metals?
Do NOT Conduct Electricity. NOT Malleable.
Do NOT Conduct Heat. NOT Ductile.
Low Melting Point.
Low Boiling Point.
Define MALLEABLE
Can be hammered into sheets.
Define DUCTILE
Can be pulled into wires.
What is the name of the Metals in Group 1?
Alkali Metals.
How many Electrons are on the outer shell of each Alkali Metal?
There is 1 Electron on the outer shell of each Alkali Metal.
Why do the outside of Alkali Metals look 'Dull'?
Because after a short period of time a layer of oxide makes the metal look dull. (This means the inside of each metal is 'Shiny'.)
Are the Alkali Metals Dense or Soft?
They are soft. It is possible to cut every Alkali Metal with a knife.
What prevents the Alkali Metals reacting with Oxygen?
They are stored in OIL which prevents the Metals reacting with oxygen and moisture in the air.
What characteristics of the Alkali Metals are low?
The Density.
The Melting Point.
The Boiling Point.
What are the Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals?
They react with Oxygen and Water.
What are the Alkali Metals?
Lithium.
Sodium.
Potassium.
Rubidium.
Caesium.
Francium.
Potassium + Oxygen ------>
Potassium Oxide.
What Gas is created when the Metals react with Water?
Hydrogen.
Are the Metals more or less reactive as you go down Group 1?
More. The Metals get more reactive as you go down the group.
Group 1 Metals react by.....?
They react by losing 1 Electron.
What color water (When Identified with Universal Indicator) does the metal create as it reacts with water?
Purple. It is an Alkali.
What do metals do in Water?
They Float, Move and Fizz. (While releasing Hydrogen Gas)
Lithium + Water ---->
(2Li + 2H2O ----> )
Lithium Oxide + Hydrogen
(2LiOH + H2)
How does Sodium react in Water?
It Moves quicker and has a Ball Shape.
How does Potassium react in Water?
It Moves very quickly and has a Lilac Flame.
What are the Safety Precautions when using Alkali Metals?
Wear Safety Goggles.
Use only a small piece of the Metal.
Use tongs to hold the Metal.
What is the name of the Elements in Group 7?
Halogens.
What are the Physical Properties of Halogens?
They react with Group 1 Metals and Salts.
How many Electrons are in the outer shell of Halogens?
There are 7 shells on the outer shell of Halogens.
What is the appearance of Chlorine?
Yellow/Green Gas.
What is the appearance of Bromine?
Orange/Red Liquid.
What is the appearance of Iodine?
Shiny Grey Solid.
What is the appearance of Bromine when it is a Gas?
Orange Gas.
What is the appearance of Iodine when it is a Gas?
Purple Gas.
Are the Elements more or less reactive as you go down the Group?
The Elements are Less Reactive as we go down the Group.
Group 7 Non-Metals react by....?
They react by gaining 1 electron.
The Halogens react with Group 1 Metals, For Example;
Potassium + Chlorine --->
Potassium Chloride.
What are the Safety Precautions when using Halogens?
Wear Safety Goggles.
Use a Fume Cupboard.
Use Plastic Gloves.
What is the Flame Test used for?
To identify different Metals.
What is the Silver Nitrate Test used for?
To identify Non-Metal Ions.
What happens to Lithium Chloride go during the two tests?
Flame test; The Flame goes red due to the Lithium.
Silver Nitrate Test; The liquid turns White due to Chloride Ions.
What happens to Sodium Iodide during the two tests?
Flame Test; The flame goes Yellow/Orange due to the Sodium.
Silver Nitrate Test; The liquid goes Yellow due to Iodide Ions.
What happens to Potassium Bromide during the two tests?
Flame Test; The flame goes Lilac due to the Potassium.
Silver Nitrate Test; The liquid goes Cream due to Bromide Ions.
What is the Ionic Equation for Silver Nitrate?
Ag+ + Cl- -----> AgCl
What is Atomic Spectroscopy?
This method is used to identify and show the concentration of specific atoms/ions present in the sample.