Specialized Cells

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muscle cell
Function to produce force and motion

Can stretch to allow lengthening of muscle
nerve cell
Transmit electrical messages and signals throughout the body

Long length for transmitting signals over long distances
palisade cell
Vertically elongated cells whose chloroplasts absorb a major portion of the light energy used by the leaf
root hair cell
Long and thin to increase surface area, take water up into the plant cells
red blood cells
Large surface area for absorbing oxygen and carrying out carbon dioxide.

Lack a nucleus, once mature. Cytoplasm contains a large amount of the hemoglobin - a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen.
ciliated epithelial cell
Move secretions and foreign bodies away with a certain direction of rapid, wave-like motions from the hair-like structures that cover their free surfaces
sperm cells
Reproductive cell that delivers its DNA to and fertilizes eggs using a tail that allows cell to swim
egg cell
Reproductive cell that contains large food stores and genetic material to grow and develop
xylem
Transports water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant
phloem
Responsible for the transport of sugars from source tissues (ex. photosynthetic leaf cells) to sink tissues (ex. non-photosynthetic root cells or developing flowers)
guard cells
Pair of curved cells that surround a stoma, becoming larger or smaller according to the pressure within the cells. Also contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
epithelial cell
Line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body
stomata
Openings on the surfaces of plant leaves that allow for the easy passage of water vapor, carbon dioxide and oxygen
white blood cells (leukocytes)
Involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. Their jobs include: producing antibodies, identifying invaders for destruction, and engulfing and destroying bacteria.
cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes)
Muscle cells that are striated, involuntary, branched, shaped like fibers cross-linked to one another, typically one nucleus per cell
skeletal muscle cells
Muscle cells that are striated, voluntary, shaped like long fibers, multinucleated
smooth muscle cells
nonstriated, involuntary, shaped like almonds (tapered ends), one nucleus per cell
striated muscles
muscle tissue that is marked by dark and light bands (stipes), is made up of elongated usually multinucleated fibers, and includes skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle

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