AQA A-Level Psychology - Cognition & Development - Pre-operational stage
Terms in this set (19)
When does the stage take place?
2-7 years of age
What happens in the stage?
The GSF further develops, but children are still focused on the appearance of objects rather than logic or operations (strings of schemas in order). They are still building schemas and their thinking has several key characteristics which shows the errors in their thinking.
What substages are there?
Pre-conceptual and intuitive.
When does the first substage take place?
2-4 years of age
What four main characteristics are in the first substage?
The occurrence of: centration, tranductive reasoning, animistic thinking and seriation
What is centration?
When children are unable to see more than one aspect of a situation at a time?
What is the impact of an inability to decentre?
2-year-olds have difficulty in social relationships as well as with objects.
What happens in transductive reasoning?
Relationships between two things are based on a single attribute - such as colour or shape - but not both.
What is the belief inanimate objects are alive?
Children show difficulty in what in seriation?
Putting items in order. They only see the extremes (biggest and smallest).
What is the second substage?
When does the second substage take place?
4-7 years of age
What does egocentrism denote?
Children only seeing things from their own POV.
What does conservation mean?
Children are unable to conserve.
What key study supports the stage?
Piaget and Inhelder (1956)
What was the key study's aim?
To see if children under seven can decentre (understand that other people can see things differently to them) and see the mountain scene from a different viewpoint.
What was the procedure of the key study?
Children aged 4-8 were shown around the mountain scene on a tabletop and could walk around it. They then sat on one side while bering shown 10 pics of different views of the model. They had to choose the view that a doll placed at various sides of the table could see.
What were the results of the study?
4-year-olds chose their own view. 6-year-olds showed some ability to decentre but made mistakes. 7- and 8-year-olds were able to decentre.
What was the conclusion of the study?
That children under 7 are still egocentric and fail to understand there are different viewpoints in the world other than their own.