IB Psychology Cognitive LOA

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Cognitive Principle
Human beings are information processors and manipulate stimuli received from the environment. These mental processes guide behaviour.
Cognitive Principle
The mind can be studied scientifically by developing theories and using a number of scientific research methods.
Cognitive Principle
Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors.
Research Methods used in Cognitive Psychology
1. Laboratory Experiment
2. Case studies of brain damaged patients
3. Neuro-imaging technologies (e.g. CAT and fMRI)
Computer analogy
The use of the computer as a tool for thinking about the human mind.
Schema Theory
Theory that information is stored in long-term memory in networks of connected facts and concepts that provide a structure for making sense of new information.
Cognitive Schemas
Framework or scaffolding of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning particular topics or aspects of the world that develop as a result of past experience.
Bartlett (1932)
Constructive Memory; studying memory for meaningful material; read a story and retell it several times, while examining progressive changes in what is remembered about the story
Brewer & Treyens (1981)
Study to show how participant's schema of an office influenced what they remembered. Each participant was taken into an office and left alone for 35 seconds while the experimenter 'popped out' to do something. Then the participant was taken to another room and asked to write down as many items that they could remember from the office as possible.
Anderson & Pichert (1978)
Aim- To determine the influence of schema processing on both encoding and retrieval.
Method- Participants heard a story which contained information about a house. Half of the participants were asked to adopt a home-buyer schema when hearing the story, and the other half, a typical burglar schema. A distracting task was performed for 12 minutes before testing recall. After a further 5 minute delay, half the participants were then given the alternative schema (i.e. home-buyers were given burglar schemas and vice versa), and the other half were asked to retain their original schema, and recall was retested.
Results- Points directly linking to alternative schemas increased by 10%, whilst those relating to previous schemas declined.
Memory Processes
1. Encoding
2. Storage
3. Retrieval
Encoding
The process of transforming sensory information into a meaningful memory. [PUT IN MEMORY]
Storage
The process of creating a biological trace of the encoded information in memory, which is then either consolidated or lost. [MAINTAIN IN MEMORY]
Retrieval
The process of recovering information stored in memory. [RECOVER FROM MEMORY]
Bartlett (1932) Constructivist
Suggested that memory is an active process and that meaningfulness and understanding are important in memory.
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)
Said that memory consists of 3 types of memory stores that differ in multiple respects: duration (how long information can be stored), capacity (how much information can be stored), and coding (in what form info can be stored). Created the Multi-Store Model of Memory. Sensory store, short term store, and long term store!
Miller (1956)
Showed that the span of information held within STS is 7 items but that, through combining items into larger times in a process called chunking, the capacity can be increased.
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
Used free recall (recalling the to-be remembered items in any order) of a list of 20 items combined with an interference task to show the primacy-recency effect.
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1971)
Suggested that duration of STM was 15-30 seconds and that items could be kept in STM by repeating them verbally (acoustic encoding), a process known as rehearsal.
Case studies of brain damaged patients.
1) H.M.
2) Clive Wearing
Craik & Lockhart (1972)
Created the Levels of Processing Model which criticized the multistore model. Focused on the process of memory instead of the structure. suggests that memory is created by the intensity of the cognitive process. Semantic processing was done at the greatest depth and therefore was most likely to be remembered. Then Acoustically processed information and then most shallow processing was Physical.
Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
Suggested the Working Memory Model. Attempted to stimulate an STM deficit to see how STM influenced reasoning, comprehension and learning tasks. They required participants to repeat a sequence of digits out loud while concurrently performing a variety of cognitive tasks. The digits would/should fill up STM and interfere with doing tasks. Suggested that people do have the ability to perform two tasks simultaneously.
Cole & Scribner (1974)
Different culture, different memory strategies. Kpelle people of Liberia could not recall objects in a list as easily as American children, but when it was presented as a story they recalled objects.
Rogoff & Waddel (1982)
Mayan children do better in memory tasks if they were meaningful in local terms. Researchers constructed a miniature model of a Mayan village and selected 20 objects from a set of 80. The Mayan children did slightly better than the children form the USA, showing that content/context is important and useful memory strategies are learned in a sociocultural context.
Loftus & Palmer (1974)
Participants were asked to estimate the speed of the car when it smashed, collided, contacted, hit the other car-- stronger adjectives equaled faster speed
Technology used in investigating cognitive process.
1) PET
2) fMRI
3) MRI
4) EEG
5) CAT
PET
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
fMRI
A form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain.
Schachter & Singer (1962)
Cognitive Labelling Theory Participants told they would be given vitamin supplement. Instead, participants were injected with adrenaline and then exposed to confederate in waiting room who was either playful or angry. Participants interpreted same physiological arousal to happiness or anger depending on confederate.
Lazarus (1991)
Cognitive processes can initiate both physiological arousal and emotion feelings, and that a cognitive appraisal of environmental stimuli is a basic requirement for elicitation of emotion. Challenges Cognitive Labelling Theory.