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KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER: KEY TOPIC 2, 'C1500-C1700: THE MEDICAL RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND'
Terms in this set (55)
By 1500, the Catholic Church was losing influence; what term describes a society which is not religious?
Which medical professor believed that alchemy could cure illness, and rejected the Theory of Four Humours?
What did the English scientist Robert Hooke make developments in during the 1660s?
Which Dutch scientist had developed Hooke's work further by 1683?
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
What was the name of the medical textbook written by Thomas Sydenham published in 1676?
What did Sydenham's 'Medical Observations' encourage his students to do?
Observing patients and treating symptoms
What foundations did Sydenham lay, that was a departure from Hippocrates and Galen?
Scientific approach to medicine
What new school of thought emphasised discovery of truth & rejected the notion that God caused everything?
What association, founded in 1660 by Charles II, was set up to carry out experiments to understand science?
The Royal Society
What was the motto of this association which summed up the move towards science and away from Galen?
Nullius in verba, Take nobody's word for it
Which theory stated that if you slept in the same room as an animal your illness could be transferred to them?
What examples show how herbal remedies began to be picked based upon the colour of the illness?
Jaundice (saffron) & Smallpox (red wine)
From where did ingredients such as ipecac (for dysentery) and sarsaparilla (Great Pox) come from?
The New World (1492 exploration begins)
What was the name given to the work being committed to find chemical cures for illness, led by Paracelsus?
Iatrochemistry (medical chemistry)
Within the 'Pharmacopoeia Londoinensis' (London Dispensatory) how many of the remedies were chemical?
122 out of 2,140 (1618)
Which famous anatomist studied at Paris in 1533 and would go on to lecture at Padua University?
What was the name of his most famous publication, published in 1543?
The Fabric of the Human Body (Fabrica)
How many mistakes of Galen's, including the inaccuracy of the jaw bone, liver and kidneys, did Vesalius identify?
Knowing that his work was going to be considered controversial, how did Vesalius attempt to gain acceptance?
He dedicated it to Emperor Charles V
Following the dissolution of the monasteries (1536) many hospitals disappeared; which famous one survived?
St Bartholomew's Hospital
Who was Harvey's teacher at Padua University who taught him to question Galen?
What method of teaching did Vesalius use that allowed Harvey to see what happened with a dissected body?
What did Harvey notice, which challenged Galen's theory, when he tried to pump liquids away from the heart?
It did not work (due to the valves)
What relatively new invention began to make Harvey think that the heart might act as a pump?
Mechanical pumps on fire engines
According to Harvey, how many litres of blood would the liver have to produce a day for a person to survive?
Acknowledging that blood did not come from the liver, what did Harvey begin to suggest?
Heart is a pump; blood circulates the body
Who did Harvey begin working for in 1618, as a royal doctor, to try and grow his reputation?
King James I
What was the name of Harvey's seminal work published in 1628?
De Motu Cordis (Circulation of the Blood)
When did Harvey publish his other work 'An anatomical account of the motion of the heart & blood in animals'?
Despite being accurate, it was initially deemed to have no practical use; when did universities begin using it?
When did the Great Plague hit London?
At its height, in September, how many deaths as a result of the plague were recorded in a single week?
Drawing on similarities with the Black Death, what was unusual about October 1664 and November 12th 1664?
Saturn/Jupiter & Mars/Saturn misaligned
In contrast to the Black Death (God) what did most people believe was causing the spread of the plague?
Which village in Derbyshire was infected by the plague after fleas on cloth from London were shipped there?
Although 273 out of the 350 inhabitants of Eyam died, how do we know that methods of quarantining worked?
The plague did not spread outside Eyam
What could people carry close to their nose (containing sweet smells) to prevent them breathing in the miasma?
Which doctors would wear bird-shaped masks to avoid catching the plague from their patients?
How many cats and dogs were slaughtered to stop the Great Plague from spreading?
40,000 dogs and 200,000 cats
What piece of advice, from doctors and the government, tells us that medicine was not yet scientific?
Prayer could prevent the Great Plague
Paracelsus theorises chemicals cause disease
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Vesalius' publishes 'Fabric of the Human Body'
Paré publishes 'Oeuvres' on curing wounds
Fracastoro says diseases spread by seeds in air
'Barts' Hospital refounded by Henry VIII
Harvey becomes a royal doctor
Harvey proves that blood circulates body
van Helmont suggests acid causes digestion
The Royal Society is founded
Hooke develops a powerful microscope
First 'Philosophical Transactions' published
The Great Plague spreads through London
Sydenham publishes 'Observationes Medicae'
Leeuwenhoek is first to observe bacteria
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