AQA A-Level Geography - Population & Environment - Population growth in Tanzania
Terms in this set (60)
What is Tanzania?
Where is Tanzania?
in East Africa
How poor is Tanzania?
35th poorest country in the world
What is its economy based heavily on?
What was the 1960 population?
What was the 2012 population?
What was the estimated 2015 population?
What was the estimated 2016 population?
What was the annual growth rate 2012-2015?
What is the 2017 estimate of the population growth rate?
What is the historical birth rate trend?
49.3 in 1960; 38.6 in 2015; gradual decline with slight increase in the early '00s.
What was the birth rate in 2015?
What is the historical fertility rate trend?
Steady decline. 6.81 in 1960, 1961.
What was the fertility rate in 2012?
What was the fertility rate in 2015?
What is the historical death rate trend?
Generally decline; from 20.5 in 1960 (went up in 1988 (14.9) to 1993 (15.12)) to 7.02 in 2015.
What was the death rate in 2012?
What was the death rate in 2015?
What was the maternal mortality rate in 2015?
410/100,000 live births
What was the infant mortality rate in 2015?
43/1000 live births
What was the under 5 mortality rate in 2015?
What do fertility rates vary by?
Region, education levels and wealth.
How do fertility rates vary greatly?
Rural fertility levels are higher than urban areas'.
What is the reason for the difference in fertility rates?
Differenced in education and the use of contraception.
Which area of the country has lower fertility levels and lower rates of infant and child mortality?
What is the trend of life expectancy?
43.6 in 1960, 64.9 in 2015; general decline throughout the 1990s
What % of the population live in slums?
50.7% (77.4% in 1990)
There are several environmental and socio-economic causes of population change.
What do Tanzania's environmental conditions encourage?
The spread of malaria, which can lead to stillbirths and maternal deaths in pregnant women (who are more susceptible).
Why are infant mortality rates lower in northern regions?
The use of indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated malaria nets reducing infection rates.
What have recent droughts done?
Led to crop failures and lower fertility rates in some areas.
What has encouraged the use of contraceptives?
Loss of income, time (women are needed to work on the land) and the likelihood of malnourishment
How prevalent is HIV/AIDS in Tanzania?
5%+ of Tanzanians have it.
How many children have been orphaned as a result of HIV-related deaths?1
What impact is HIV/AIDS having on the population?
It has lowered life expectancy, increased infant mortality, slowed population growth and changed the population structure.
What has helped to halve infant mortality and decreased maternal mortality over the last 25 years?
Improved social status of women and better access to basic education.
What % more likely are children born to mothers with no education to die before the age of 1?
What is the desired number of children for Tanzanian families?
5.3 - high
What is the peak age for childbearing
20-24 - young
How many Tanzanian women become pregnant by 19?
How many women are married by 18?
How many married women use modern methodsw of contraception?
Which areas have seen the biggest decline in fertility, and why?
Urban areas; good access to education and higher levels of wealth
What rate of migration does Tanzania have?
A small net out-migration, impacting minimally on population change.
If population growth continues, what will Tanzania's population be by 2050?
138 million, making it the 13th most populous country in the world, which will have major implications for the country.
What will need to happen to support the growing population?
Food and resources, improvements to maternal and child healthcare, and more school places.
What will need to be provided for the growing number of people of working age?
How could slowing down population growth be possible?
Through economic development and urbanisation?
Why might - and how will - the government intervene to slow down population growth?
Improve maternity services, provide better infant care, and provide family planning programmes.
What will reduce fertility rates and HIV prevalence?
Improving education and the status of women, and changing perceptions on contraception and family size.
What can educating girls in Tanzania do?
Reduce rates of fertility, maternal mortality and infant mortality.
Why are fertility rates among Maasai families higher than in many other ethic groups in Tanzania?
Families with more children have greater social and political power within the Maasai community.
Contraceptive prevalence, modern methods (% of women ages 15-49)
6.6% in 1992; 32% in 2016
Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15-49)
10.4% in 1992; 38.4% in 2016
Adults (ages 15+) newly infected with HIV
Peak of 150,000 1992-1995, then decline (with slight increase 2011-2012) to 45,000 in 2016.
Children (ages 0-14) newly infected with HIV
13,000 in 1990, peaked at 32,000 (1998-2001), low of 8,100 in 2013, increase to 10,000 in 2016.
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)
Sharp Increase, then slow decline. 5.4% in 1990
peak of 9.3% in 1997-1998, 4.7% in 2016.
Prevalance of HIV (males v females)
A higher percentage of females have HIV than males. (2.3% to 0.9% in 2016)
Women's share of population ages 15+ living with HIV (%)
high of 2016 59.95
Increase since 1990 (49.57%) to a high in 2016 (59.95%)
Women who were first married by age 18 (% of women ages 20-24)
36.6 in 1992
High of 41.1 in 2005
Low of 30.5 in 2016.