Terms in this set (80)
Rocks, sediment and sand that is carried in sea waves that rub again the coastline and wear it down over time.
actions taken to adjust to natural events such as climate change, to reduce damage, limit the impacts, take advantage of opportunities, or cope with the consequences
a wave-eroded passage through a small headland. This begins as a cave which is gradually widened and deepened until it cuts through
rocks being carried by the sea smash together and break into smaller, smoother and rounder particles
water that flows back towards the sea after the swash has moved upshore
where a spit grows across a bay, a bar can eventually enclose the bay to create a lagoon
a wide coastal inlet, often with a beach, where areas of less resistant rock have been eroded by the sea
a zone of deposited material that extends from the low water line to the limit of storm waves
adding new material to a beach artificially, through the dumping of large amounts of sand or shingle
a low ridge on a sandy beach created by swash, usually marks the high tide line
a type of weathering caused by flora and fauna, such as plant roots growing in cracks in the rock or animals burrowing into weak rocks
weathering of limestone and chalk by acidic rainwater
a large hole in a cliff caused by waves forcing their way into cracks in the cliff face
the explosive force of air trapped in the cracks of rock
the decomposition (or rotting) of rock caused by a chemical change within that rock
a steep high rock face formed by weathering and erosion
strategies used to defend coastal environments, divided into three different approaches: hard engineering, soft engineering and managed retreat
the establishment of a new coastline as part of managed retreat, often allowing flooding to occur over low-lying land to protect farmland, roads and settlements
a coastline with a single rock running parallel to the coast
a wave with a strong swash that surges up a beach and weak backwash.
chemical erosion caused by the dissolving of rocks and minerals by sea water
occurs when material being transported by the sea is dropped due to the sea losing energy
a wave that crashes down onto a beach and has a weak swash and powerful backwash
an coastline made up of different rock types that are perpendicular to the coast results in headlands and bays
deposit of sand which has been blown inland by onshore winds
fences constructed on sandy beaches to encourage the formation of new sand dunes to protect existing dunes
building up dunes and increasing vegetation to prevent excessive coastal retreat
wearing away and removal of material by a moving force
a crack or line of weakness in rock
the distance of open water over which the wind can blow
The breakdown of rock by the repeated cycles of freezing and thawing that can make cracks in rock bigger
steel wire mesh filled with boulders used in coastal defences
The study of rocks - how they were made and where they are located
the way that layers of rock are folded or tilted
a wooden barrier built out into the sea to stop the longshore drift of sand and shingle, and allow the beach to grow
A coastal management strategy which controls natural processes by constructing man-made structures.
a piece of resistant rock which sticks out into the sea.
process where breaking waves compress pockets of air in cracks in a cliff; the pressure may cause the crack to widen, breaking off rock
a 154km stretch of coast in East Devon and Dorset which was made a World Heritage Site in 2001 because of its geological importance
a physical feature of the Earth's surface
the movement of rock, earth or debris down the slope of a hill. Also known as a landslip
transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by waves approaching the beach at an angle
Areas of the coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Usually this will be areas considered to be of low value - eg places not being used for housing or farmland.
type of grass that is adapted to windy, exposed conditions and is used in coastal management to stabilise sand dunes
downhill movement of weathered material under the force of gravity
The breaking up of exposed rock without any change in its chemical composition, i.e. freeze-thaw
areas of fine sediment deposits which over time can develop in saltmarshes
when saturated soil and weak rock flow down a slope
The most common wind direction in a particular area.
strong winds or tidal current cause the end of a spit to become curved
increasing the height and width of beaches by dumping and shaping of dredged sand or shingle
large boulders deliberately dumped on a beach as part of coastal defences (sometimes called rip-rap)
a fragment of rock breaks away from the cliff face, often due to freeze-thaw weathering
slump of saturated soil and weak rock along a curved surface
hopping movement of pebbles in the sea
important natural habitats often found in sheltered river estuaries behind spits where there is very little flow of water
accumulation of fragments of weathered rock
concrete wall aiming to prevent erosion of the coast by resisting and reflecting wave energy
loose surface material becomes saturated with water and the extra weight causes the material to become unstable and move rapidly downhill
the dissolving of rocks such as limestone and chalk by sea water
A coastal management strategy which controls natural processes by using natural landforms
depositional landform formed when a finger of sediment extends from the shore out to sea, often at a river mouth
a person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business.
the bottom part of a rock sticking out from the sea after most of the stack has fallen or been undercut.
isolated pillar of rock left when the top of an arch has collapsed
small particles carried in river flow or sea water, i.e. sands, silts and clays
able to continue over a period of time
the forward movement of a wave up a beach
heavy particles rolled along the sea bed
the movement of eroded material
The power of the sea waves are reduced in bays because they are deflected by headlands
ripples in the sea caused by the transfer of energy from the wind blowing over the surface of the sea
The sea attacks the base of the cliff forming a indent between low and high tide
A rocky flat shelf found at sea level representing the base of old, retreated cliffs
The process by which rocks are broken down into small grains and soil.
An example of erosive landform on a discordant coastline where the soft rock has eroded faster than the hard rock.
an example of managed retreat located near chichester in East Sussex
A tourist destination along the south coast of England in Dorset which has spent millions of pounds on coastal management
An example of a wave-cut platfrom
It is an example of a spit