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AQA A-Level PE 6.7 Impact of commercialisation on physical activity and sport and the relationship between sport and the media

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (37)

There are a number of advantages to elite sport as a result of the golden triangle, including the following:
• Increased income to the sport allows events to be televised. This money can be spent at all levels of the sport, funding participation initiatives at grassroots level, as well as providing finance to support elite athletes at the top of their profession.
• Increased promotion of the sport can attract more fans and increase its popularity.
• Increased sponsorship/income from business sources pays for advertising at grounds/sporting events.
• Sports are organised and funded better to improve the way they are run (i.e. in a more professional manner).
• Improved facilities benefit performer and spectator alike.

However, there are also a number of possible disadvantages to elite sport resulting from its links to the media and sponsorship. These include the following:
• Sensationalist media reporting may sometimes focus too much on negative aspects of a sport.
• The media/sponsors can dictate kick-off times/scheduling of sports events to the detriment of performers/fans.
• The media/sponsors can change the nature of a sporting activity (e.g. introducing more/longer breaks in play to allow for advertising).
• The media only televise/focus on already popular, high-profile sports.
• Sponsors/the media can be too demanding on elite performer/coaches (e.g. in relation to personal appearances and giving interviews).
• Sponsorship deals can increase the
pressure to win in order to maintain lucrative contracts with companies willing to pay for an association with successful sports/sports performers.
There are a number of possible reasons why an elite performer should consider the nature of a potential sponsor before deciding whether or not to accept a deal:
• As elite performers, they are role models and strongly influence the behaviour of others, so sponsorship from a junk food company or product association with alcohol might not be
considered appropriate. Such products do not reflect the nature of sport, which is more about health and fitness.
• Performers have a social duty to others and need to consider carefully the ethical nature of any sponsorship deal.
• to ensure it does not negatively affect their reputation and potentially endanger future commercial support. For example, sportswear companies which are accused of the unethical manufacturing of goods might require careful consideration before a decision is reached on a potential deal.
• Elite performers need to look at the level of control a sponsor is potentially exerting on them before deciding whether or not to accept a sponsorship deal (e.g. what are their demands for personal appearances, filming of
commercials and so on?).

Possible counter-arguments which can be used to explain why elite performers should not have to consider the nature of a potential sponsor before deciding whether or not to accept a deal:
• If a product is legal, elite performers have a right to accept a sponsorship deal if they so wish.
• It is unfair to expect elite performers to engage in a protest or statement when there are financial considerations at stake and their
livelihood is at risk.
• Performers do not ask to be role models so they should be able to accept a sponsorship deal if they choose to do so.
• Indeed, they could argue that if they do not accept the sponsorship deal on offer, someone else will!
Positive effects:
• Increased performance standards; players of a higher standard providing a high level of excitement and entertainment
• Improved quality of facilities; larger, higher quality stadia resulting from increased investment
• Improved viewing experience via innovations such as changes in ball colour, creation of team merchandise to create team loyalty via the purchase and subsequent wearing of a team's kit
• Increased access to watch sport; more opportunities to watch events 'live' as more competitions, events and matches are taking place.
• Development of more variations of a sport format which provide alternative viewing experiences
• More funding available to provide
entertainment (e.g. cheerleaders/pop stars) at sports events
• Rule changes introduced provide extra interest and extra excitement for the spectator (e.g. Twenty20 cricket)
• Increased funding for improved technology at a ground (e.g. video screens) and at home (e.g. interactive technology, HD coverage of sport and referee links)
• Increased excitement in the audience while awaiting the decisions of off-field officials (e.g. Hawk-Eye in tennis)
• Increased awareness of and knowledge of sport; creation of role models for fans to idolise
• Increased elimination of negative aspects of sport (e.g. hooliganism/player violence)

Negative effects:
• Increased costs to watch sport (e.g. on pay per-view satellite channels)
• Loss of the traditional nature of the sport (e.g. via the wearing of coloured clothing in cricket)
• Increased number of breaks in play to accommodate adverts and decisions of officials
• Fewer tickets available for the fans; more are allocated to sponsors and corporate hospitality
• Changes in kick-off times to maximise viewing figures (i.e. scheduled at prime time), which is not always in the best interests of the long-distance travelling fan who wishes to watch an event live
• Minority sports likely to receive less coverage; major sports likely to dominate the TV schedules and become 'over-exposed'
• Links to team or player merchandise are sometimes viewed negatively due to their high cost and regularity of change