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Child language acquisiton
Terms in this set (51)
Relates to confusing a hypernym (broad category e.g. fruit) with a hyponym (specific example)
Child directed speech
Speech patterns used by parents and carers when communicating with children
Groups of consonants e.g. str or gl that demand more muscular control than single consonants or vowels so tend to appear later in the baby utterances
Sounds a baby will make like 'goo' and 'ga ga', generally around the age of 6-8 weeks. It is believed this is where they discover their vocal chords
Children who are raised without human intervention
Making utterances that encourage a child to fill in the blanks
A single word representing a more complex though generally created by a child. eg. 'juice' meaning the child is thirsty and wants a drink
Having labelled objects, children start to identify connections between them, recognising similarities and differences
The ability of a baby to recognise that an object still exists even when the baby cannot actually see it therefore it requires the capacity to form a mental representation of the object
The child confuses hypernyms with hyponyms
The sounds a child can make are reduced so they can only make the sounds of their own language
An increase in the variety of sounds a child can produce
Post telegraphic stage
36 months. Increasing awareness of grammatical rules and irregularities
The rephrasing and extending of a childs utterance
The repetition of a sounds such as ba ba
24 - 36 months. Three or more words joined together
Two word stage
18 months. Two words combined
One word stage
12 months. One word utterances
When the meaning ascribed to a word used by a child which is narrower than the meaning it has in adult language - using a hyponym instead of hypernym - cat instead of pet
Omitting the final consonant in words eg. do(g), cu(p)
Substituting one sound for another (especially the 'harder' sounds that develop later) eg. pip for ship
Adding an extra vowel sound to the ends of words. Creating a CVCV pattern eg. doggie
Changing one consonant or vowel for another (as in the early plosive sounds 'b' and 'd') eg. gog for dog
Repeating a whole syllable eg. dada and mama
Deletion of unstressed syllables
Omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words eg. nana for banana
Sounds of discomfort or reflexive actions eg. crying, coughing, burping, sucking
Repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds.
Words like vocalisations, not matching actual words but used consistently for the same meaning.
Humans are born with some knowledge of language
Language development by means of external influence - reinforcement principles
Children need to be exposed to language to develop linguistic abilities
Humans go through specific stages of cognitive development and intellectual progression and we create schemes that help interpret information
Acquisition of inflectional affixes - words ending in ed or ing
They observe that past tense forms usually end in -ed so instead of 'ran' they say 'runned'.
Wug experiment - applying the plural rule
Stages of negative formation: children find it difficult to use negatives correctly at first and learn forms of the negative in three stages, from 'no' through to 'don't' and 'am not'.
Stages of linguistic development: Labelling, packaging and network building
Addition to negatives: once pragmatic competence is achieved, youngsters learn to copy parents' use of words like 'maybe' when they really mean 'no'
Allison Stewart Clarke
Child Directed Speech: Children have a larger vocabulary if their mothers talk to them a lot.
Sometimes termed 'sociodramatic play', children often adopt roles and identities, acting out storylines and inventing objects and settings. They invent objects and settings, fulfilling Halliday's Imaginative language function
Young children use props or pivots to support their play, but older ones imagine instead.
Functions of Language: Dore looks at individual utterances, rather than the broad picture of life: Labelling, Repeating, Answering, Requesting (Action), Calling, Greeting, Protesting, Practicing.
Halliday's taxonomy: Children acquire language in order to facilitate developments in life: Instrumental, Regulatory, Interactional, Personal, Representational, Imaginative, Heuristic.
Exaggerating prosodic cues
exaggerated intonation patterns, higher frequencies, greater pitch variations
phrasing sentences in different ways, such as making it a question
repeating what the child said
restating what the child said in a more linguistically sophisticated form
expounding further on the word by giving more info
providing the name of objects, using simplified vocab
using more precise sounds contained in the words, stretching out sounds, sounding out 'super vowels'
Brown, Cazden and bellugi
Found that parents often respond to the TRUTH value of what their baby is saying, rather than its grammatical correctness. For example, a parent is more likely to respond to "there doggie" with "Yes, it's a dog!" than "No, it's there is a dog."
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