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Changing spaces making places
Terms in this set (134)
What are the three key ideas of space and place?
- At the heart of places are people
- what makes a place different from the same as another place is largely down to people
- as people live work and play space is changed into a place
What are the key characteristics of a place?
- Physical geography
- built environment
What are the physical characteristics of a place?
- slope angle
What are the demographical characteristics of a place?
- number of inhabitants
What is socio-economic characteristics of a place?
- family status
What are the cultural characteristics of a place?
- local traditions
- local clubs
What are the political characteristics of a place?
- local, regional and national government
- local groups e.g residents association
What the built characteristics of a place?
- age and style of building materials
- density of housing
What is place?
Place = location + meaning
How do we understand place?
- physical location
- meaning given
What is space?
A physical dimension in which things exist
What do we have to cross to get to a place?
What can influence your perception of a place?
How can age affect your perception of a place?
Your perception may change as you get older / when you re-visit a location. It may not be the same experience as before e.g. a park
How can gender affect your perception of a place?
Stereotypically you may be expected to like a certain space more. You may also feel more or less safe in a place e.g. women walking guns along in the dark
How can sexuality affect your perception of a place?
Can influence the way a person uses a space. Acceptance of sexuality may differ from place to place affecting the amount of time people spend their e.g. the 'gay village' in Manchester gives people a place to relax
How can religion affect your perception of a place?
Some locations have spiritual/ deep meanings for people and they can feel closer to God and their religion e.g church, Jerusalem
What are the three key ideas of emotional attachment to a place?
- places will bring out emotions in us
- if we have positive experiences we are likely to have a strong attachment to that place and vice versa
- memory's and feelings are not just individual but also social
What is time-space compression?
Any phenomena that alters the relationship between space and time. Normally for the distance to decrease (world getting smaller)
What are the positives of time-space compression?
- ideas can be spread quicker e.g cures for diseases
- visit family
- can import food
- exchange materials, spread resources
- broadened mental health
What are the negatives of time-space compression?
- advance war tech causes more destruction (conflict is easier)
- Importing foods and goods polluted the sea and environment, planes/ships/vehicles = Co2
- cultures and traditions can be lost
- more unhealthy people, not as active and eat unhealthily
- mental comparison of lifestyle through internet and social media
What is Globalisation?
The increasing interconnectedness and inter-dependence of the world, economically, socially, politically, and culturally
How does globalisation fit in with a sense of place?
It is a set of forces that are changing the ways in which people experience and understand places, both familiar and unfamiliar. Different people and places are affected differently by globalisation
What is knowledge economy?
Wealth creating activities that gather, store, and analyse knowledge e.g. high tech, manufacturing finance, tele communications etc.
What does knowledge economy enable?
What are the two ways places can be represented?
Gives some formal ways a place can be represented?
- census data
- crime figures
- road networks
- rainfall totals
- distribution of soil types
- location of Ebola victims
Gives some informal ways a place can be represented?
- tv soaps
Describe formal representations?
Formal representations of a place are closely linked with statistics which describe data associated with particular places
Describe informal representations?
Informal representations play a mocks role as they offer sounds as well as sights. It can show the geographical context and highlight details of a place. Many films rely on their representation of a pace to tell their story to the viewers
What are the advantages of formal representations?
- gives accurate information
- very specific
- useful for reports
- useful for comparing places
What are the disadvantages of formal representations?
- not as accessible
- some people can't interpret graphs and numbers
- perceived as boring
- census only happens once every 10 years - inaccurate - people don't fill it in properly
What are the advantages of informal representations?
- shows a more social aspect
- gives different vibes + information
- reaches a wider audience (easy to interpret)
- personal look at culture, break down of cultures
What are the disadvantages of informal representations?
- can promote bias/stereotypes
- give the wrong impression
- put people off (graffiti)
- reduce tourism
Name some urban push factors?
- expensive cost of living
Name some rural pull factors?
- timelessness/ heritage
- nature/fresh air
- simple/ healthy
What is internal migration?
Movement within a country, in contrast to international migration
What is counter-urbanisation?
The movement from urban to rural areas beyond the suburbs and the city green belt. This is also know as rural-urban migration
What is gentrification?
The movement of middle-income and high-income groups into places that were previously working-class urban or rural neighbourhoods
What is urban rebranding?
A strategy for urban re-development that involves creating a new city image, usually linked with consumption and entertainment, not traditionally city industries. The result is a post-industrial city
Who tends to move to the countryside?
- early retirees
- tourism entrepreneurs
- rural 'teleworkers' (work from home with tech)
- public sector workers
- artists and alternative lifestyles
What changes does migration bring to rural areas?
- rising house prices and community disintegration
- hostility and vandalism
- culture clash
- loss of identity
- no rejuvenation of services
What is a carbon neutral city?
A city that is being governed in sustainable ways that help reduce its carbon footprint ideally zero
What is an eco-city?
A newly built urban area designed to boost sustainability with as little environmental impact as possible.
What is an edge-city?
Suburban areas become edge cities when they have undergone major growth during the last 30 years
What is an instant city?
A term coined by National geographic to distinguish rapid design and construction of large settlements in China from past waves of new town constructions in other countries
What is a megacity?
A city or major city region whose population is at least 10 million
What is a mega-region?
A merging of mega-cities to form vast urban areas which may stretch hundreds of Km across countries and be home to more than 100 million people
What is a mega-city
The United Nations term for a city or city region whose population is at least 20 million
What is a smart city?
New cities planned from scratch to be energy-efficient and networked, with computers that allow intelligent control of traffic and infrastructure
Name some urban pull factors?
- bright lights and entertainment
- 24-huge services and shopping
- range of employment opportunities
- the 'liveliness' of large crowds of people
Name some rural push factors?
- too quiet
- no employment opportunities
- little entertainment
- increased commute time
Gross domestic product- the amount of money for goods and services, sold by a country made within a country
Gross national income - the amount of money for goods and services sold by a county made within and out of the country
Define social inequality?
The unequal distribution of factors such as income, education or health across a population
Define quality of life?
The extent to which people's news and desires (social, psychological, and physical) are met
Define standard of living?
The ability to access services and goods. This includes basics such as food, water, clothes, housing, and personal mobility
What can improve your standard of living but lower your quality of life?
Longer working hours may lead to...
- longer daily commute
- more stress
- loss of friends
- away from family
- don't feel they have enough
What is affluenza
When your affluent but not happy
What is deprivation?
When the quality of life and standard of living is low. It is more than just poverty it refers to a general lack of resources and opportunities
What is poverty?
Not having enough money to support a decent standard of living.
Describe the cycle of deprivation?
Define index of multiple deprivation?
A measure of relative deprivation for small areas. It is a combined measure deprivation based on a total 37 different indicators which have been based into seven domains which reflects different aspects of deprivation experience by individuals living in the area
What are the seven different domains in the index of multiple deprivation?
- living environment
- access to housing and services
Define human development index?
The human development index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education and income per capita indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development
What is the main difference between the index of multiple deprivation and human development index?
The index of multiple deprivation is used for small areas and is very specific to the (more exact) location of an individual. However HDI is based on a country statistic, making it less individual and more generalised to a country
How do you measure social inequality through living environment?
Living environment combines four indicators to give an overall score for the level deprivation, these indicators are; social and private housing in poor condition, houses without central heating, air-quality, and road traffic accidents involving injury to cyclists and pedestrians
How do you measure social inequality through income?
- Cannot afford to purchase the minimum amount of food and non-food essentials
- relative poverty - A useful measure as it relates to level poverty to the distribution of income across a population
- Gini coefficient - A technique that can be used to measure the levels of income inequality is defined as the ratio values between zero and 0.1. Occur fission of 1.0 means well in the hands of one person zero indicates everyone has equal wearly
How do you measure social inequality through employment?
Weather household as a member with regular income has huge effect on quality and standard of life. However it can be hard to determine whether someone is unemployed or not and many countries do not know the amount of people unemployed. In LIDC's many are working for the informal sector relatively easy way into employment but with many drawbacks. It's clear individuals life chances are closely related to where they live.
How do you measure social inequality through health?
Access to healthcare and levels of ill-health are closely associated with social inequality.
- The number of healthcare professionals
- The number of doctors per thousand people
It's about clean water, sanitation, housing and air-quality. Social inequalities inference attitudes towards vaccinations, tobacco and alcohol, aids and HIV which is a huge problem in Africa due to view of male-female relationship and ignorance
How do you measure social inequality through education?
- Literacy levels
- amount of people who can read and write
There clear contrast between countries especially in terms of gender inequality
How do you measure social inequality through crime?
Levels in crime in an area can help show is the poverty of an area. An area with high crime may be especially poor with many people in desperation, signifying high levels of deprivation.
How do you measure social inequality do you access to housing and services?
Access to services is affected by;
- the number of services
- how accessible the service is
- social and economic factors
Housing tenner can tell us a lot about social inequalities. E.g. owners can afford their own houses. Renters may not be able to afford to get on the property ladder. And people in council housing can't afford a house at all. Also the amount of homeless
Who tends to move to the countryside?
- early retie
How does the UK government tackle social and economic inequality?
- health care
- rural services
How does the UK government use taxation to tackle social and economic inequality?
- used to redistribute from more prosperous to less prosperous groups to create a fairer society
- the UK has a progressive tax system where the better off pay a large proportion of their income tax
How does the UK government use subsidies to tackle social and economic inequality?
- subsidies are given to poorer groups
- children from poorer families may get free school meals, clothing allowances and help with uni fees
- pensioners may get subsidies for fuel and transport
- single parents from poorer families may get free childcare
- low wage workers, the unemployed and those with a long term disability are entitled to benefits from the government
How does the UK government use planning to tackle social and economic inequality?
- priority is given to upgrading housing and services in the poorest areas
- planning targets the mud deprived areas which vary in scale from neighbourhoods to entire regions
How does the UK government use law to tackle social and economic inequality?
- legislation exists in the UK which out laws discrimination on racial, ethnic, gender, and age criteria and aims to give equal opportunities to all groups
- the poorest groups of workers are protected by the minimum wage legislation
How does the UK government use education to tackle social and economic inequality?
- UK government provides funding for training and upgrading skills in order to raise skill levels and qualifications improve employment prospects and boost economic growth
- education programs designed to improve personal health are (e.g diet, obesity, smoking) are often targeted at the poorest groups in society
How does the UK government use pensions to tackle social and economic inequality?
- spending on pensions has almost doubled in the past dozen years due to increasing life expectancy and you withdraw your pension earlier
- some of the poorest people in the country rely on a state pension
- tends to be a disproportionate amount of these people living in inner cities
How does the UK government use health care to tackle social and economic inequality?
- in the UK the NHS is free at the point of delivery - paid for by taxation
- The provision of health care services varies. E.g inner cities and remote areas are short on GP's and other health care workers.
How does the UK government use rural services to tackle social and economic inequality?
- supports rural areas through the key settlements policy
- services such as education, health care, employment, and housing have been concentrated in large villages and towns, which act as a hub for people living in surrounding smaller settlements
- however as personal mobility has increased, rural residents no longer rely exclusively on their nearest key settlement.
What is meant by the term Global shift?
Refers to the relocation of manufacturing production on a global scale
How has manufacturing changed at a global scale over the years
50 years ago manufacturing was more in Western Europe and North America. They (and Japan) created labour intensive factories in NIC mainly in east Asia and Latin America
What are some of the impacts of global shift?
- loss of employment in primary and secondary as competitive advantages in AC's primary and secondary activities declined
- unfair labour, long hard hours at a really low wage
- fair trade still exploited
The changing distribution of manufacturing
The positives of global shift in manufacturing in AC's
- creates more directional jobs that have higher income... pay more tax.... improve services and infrastructures
- factories in LIDC can produce harmful gases (greenhouse gases) doesn't effect people in AC's
- are able to afford high rise buildings to hold more employees e.g. more jobs
The negatives of global shift in manufacturing in AC's
- loss of employment for people in AC's who only have secondary skills/jobs (deindustrialisation) unemployable in tertiary and quaternary sectors
- don't have well paid jobs can't afford further education to gain new education and skills
- tax will decrease due to locals being unemployed so the local area will become deprived and services will suffer e.g schools
The positives of global shift in manufacturing in EDC's and LIDC's
- offers more job opportunities
- improves the local economy
Improved quality of life-health care and education
- increased tax base
- better services
- trickle down effect
The negatives of global shift in manufacturing in EDC's and LIDC's
- exploited... earn little wage... long hours
- poor dangerous working conditions
- earn less money
- economy doesn't benefit... can't start own trade
- factories collapsed e.g Rana Plaza Bangladesh- locked in
- unhygienic/ pollution dumping in lakes
- factory built - deforestation
- don't implement laws... don't monitor it
- factories can close due to cheaper labour elsewhere
Define a player
An individual or organisation with an interest and or influence in actions, describe or operations if an organisation. Also know as a stakeholder
Name some private players
- self-employed worker
- retail shop e.g B&Q, Shell, MAC Donald's
- local community
- national trust
Name some public players
- the EU
- UK government
- herts county council
Who creates a place?
- governments (national and local)
- planners and architects
- local community groups
What is place making?
A multi-faceted approach to the planning, design, and management of public spaces
What is place making for?
Capitalises community assets, inspiration and potential, with the intention of creating public spaces that promote people's health, happiness and well-being
How do planners and architects make places
"an effective planning system and good spatial plan are essential to achieving high quality places, and good design"-CABL 2009
What is defensive planning?
Planning to prevent something e.g benches have arm rests in NYC to stop homeless people sleeping on them
Why is planning good?
- places can be more holistic
- places can meet the 3 needs of sustainability (environment, social, economy)
- reflect the history and culture of a place
- influences how lives are lived
How can design have a negative effect?
Poor design and planning can lead to crime, vandalism, high maintenance costs, poor health and a feeling of isolation for those living in ghat area
Why is London becoming a 24hr city?
1) Population change - pop has been rising since mid 1980's. between 2001-11 pop grew by 14% and 16% in the inner city. More young people
2) Tourism - 2013 London attracted 44% more tourists than a decade earlier. Proportion of foreign residents (with a tradition of late night merry-making) has risen
3) shift work - increasing number of people work shifts
How is London changing into a 24hr city?
Planners and archery are developing ideas that support and promote it
- night buses doubled
- since sept 2015 five underground lines have been operating 24hrs on a weekend
- shops e.g Mc Donald's 24 hr (40 open all night in London)
- gyms and Hairdressers's pen at night
Art exhibitions and theatres open into early hours
- common perception of central places being deserted, threatening and unsafe at night. Rebranding is attempting to alter such perceptions
Name some local community groups
- residents association
- neighbourhood watch
- churches/ other religious groups
What roles may community groups have?
1) involvement in consultation, planning, design, and management
2) evidence of community groups working in partnership successfully
3) the importance of cooperation in the place making process
4) the coordination of the differing roles of other important players in the place making process
5) protection or management of an area
6) organising funding
What is a places brand?
The popular images a place had acquired Nd by which it is generally recognised. Includes objective aspects such as location and also subjective ones such as safety, atmosphere and economic activity
What is rebranding?
Developments aimed at changing negative perceptions of a place making it more attractive to investment
What is regeneration?
The investment of capital and ideas into an area to revitalise and renew its social-economic and environmental conditions
What is reimagining?
Developments associated with rebranding and usually involving cultural, artistic, or sporting elements
What two things are part of the process of rebranding?
regeneration and reimagining
What 3 key elements are involved in rebranding
1) brand artefact
- create a new environment
- reuse the existing environment
- remove the old environment
2) brand essence
- living in the city
- working in the city
- visiting the city
- taking about the city
What is brand artefact?
The physical environment, including;
- individual buildings
- the built environment
- features in a rural environment such as dry stone walls or evidence of a former industry such as waste tips
What is brand essence
People's experience of the place
What is brandscape?
How the place positions itself in relation to other competitor places
Explain market-led rebranding strategy
Involves private investors aiming to make a profit. Typically includes property developers, builders and business owners, for example those running restaurants, wine bars or retailing. Gentrification is typical of this strategy such as in Islington London
Explain top-down rebranding strategy
Involves large scale organisations such as local authorities, especially the planning departments, development agencies and private investors such as insurance and pension fund managers. Several former Docklands areas such as Salford Quays Manchester are example
Explain flagship development rebranding strategy
Large scale, one-off property projects with distinctive architecture. They act as a catalyst to attract further investment and regeneration. The millennium Stadium in Cardiff is an example
Explain legacy/sustainable rebranding strategy
Following international sporting events which bought investments and regeneration to a place. Examples include the Olympics in London (2012) and the commonwealth games in Manchester (2002)
Explain events or themes regarding strategy
Major festivals such as this associated with European capital of culture, Liverpool 2008. This serves as a catalyst for the cultural development and the transformation of the city. Consequently, the beneficial socio-economic development and impact for the chosen city and that was it considered determining the chosen cities
What elements can be used for rebranding?
- Heritage use
Extra info sheet
What is an economic boom?
A boom is a period of rapid economic expansion resulting in high GPD, Lower unemployment, and rising asset prices
What is the recession?
When the economy declines significantly for at least six months
What is the economic cycle?
The economic health of the place is rarely static. Overtime places grow and decline, this impacts on social opportunities and inequalities. Within countries places often experiences this in different ways
What did the Russian Economist Kandratieff conclude
The capitalist economic system operates on a series of interconnected cycles of about 50 years of growth and decline since 1750. Each cycle is going to technological innovation and neindustries, what's new tactics old course those in a recession ensues. That is not evenly distributed. Are where it is concentrated tend to benefit more.
Give a reason for the distribution of such benefits
Education. Where there is higher education more technology will be found e.g Cambridge UK
Slowdowns in economic activity. Macroeconomic indicators like GDP per capita, investment spending, household income and business profits fall while bankruptcy and unemployment rises.
How do people cope with a recession?
To varying degrees generally the more educated a pardons the better they tend to cope. During recessions households often cut back on non-essentials like leisure and entertainment, leading to fewer tertiary (service) jobs
Kandratieffs waves of innovation theory
What are the different waves of Kandratieffs innovation theory?
1st wave - Iron and steel, water powered mechanisms, textiles, commerce
2nd wave - steam power, railways, steel, cotton
3rd wave - Electricity, chemicals, internal combustion engine
4th wave - Electronics, aviation, petrochemicals, space, pharmaceuticals, nuclear technology
5th wave - Digital networks, bio-technology, information technology, software
6th wave - Renewable energy, nanotechnology, medical technology and drugs, aerospace, seismic conductors
What factors cause a recession?
- high interest rates
- increased inflation/stock marker crash
- falling house prices and sales
- credit crunch
What are the social impacts of a recession?
1) unemployment- Firms go bankrupt so workers lose their jobs, or in an effort to reduce costs firms make cuts
2) rise in poverty - lower wages
3) falling real incomes
4) increased inequality
5) less tax revenue - higher borrowing
6) permanently lost output
What are the social impacts of an economic boom?
1) less poverty
2) more employment
3) more taxation
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