English Language Theorists: Language and Region
Terms in this set (10)
Neuliep and Speten-Hansen (2013): The influence of ethnocentrism on social perception of non-native accents
- Interested in a link between ethnocentrism and perception of a speaker with a 'non-native' accent.
- participants asked questions to determine how ethnocentric they are.
- after this was determined, they were split into 2 groups and watched a video of a male speaker.
- 1 video = 'non-native' accent, 1 video = Standard American.
- participants asked to rank attractiveness and credibility of speaker.
- determined that more ethnocentric speaker gave lower ratings to 'non-native' accent
: how did they determine someone's ethnocentricity accurately? Is 2 groups a suitable division or is it too broad?
Seligman, Tucker, and Lambert (1972)
Concluded that teachers perception of students heavily influenced by their speech. Often paired with Choy and Dodd (1976).
Choy and Dodd (1976): Standard and non-standard Hawaiian Speaking Children
Conclusions suggest that teachers make judgements on a students ability and their personality based on the way they speak.
Gary Ives (2014): [Private Data]
- Analyzed 2 schools where MLE was widely used; 1 in Bradford, 95% of students Pakistani, and 1 in South London, wide mix but mainly people of Afro-Caribbean descent.
- study showed that code switching varied on age, interlocutor, environment, and more.
- Showed many slang words have Afro-Caribbean origin, but they accommodate to beyond one ethnically-based group.
: very small sample size (i.e 8 teen boys questioned in the Bradford school only!)
William Labov (1961): Martha's Vineyard
- Martha's Vineyard is a small island off the coast of Massachusetts (popular with tourists).
- Researched pronunciation of dipthongs /aʊ/ and /aɪ/ (mouse vs mice).
- interviewed 69 people from diffrernt social groups (i.e age, gender, occupation, etc).
- asked specific questions to make them say a word with this dipthong.
- found certain groups shared the tendency to pronounce them as /əʊ/ and /əi/. Found in: a small group of fishermen, people between 31-45, and up-islanders (locals who didn't like all the tourists).
- found this was done to create a hard-shelled community from tourists
- covert prestige as young men respect 'Chillmark' fisherman.
- method lowers demand characteristics as they answer naturally.
- high schoolers who wanted to leave the island didn't centralise their vowels, whilst those who wanted to stay did.
Dixon, Mahoney, and Cocks (2002): Accents of guilt? Effects of regional accent, rce, and crime type of attributions of guilt
- Investigated the correlation between accents and perceived guilt.
- One speaker uses RP and Brummie when interpreting both a policeman and criminal.
- Participants believed that criminal in Brummie accent more guilty than RP criminal.
: sample size is unclear. Also doesn't consider race, age, gender, sexuality, the crime itself, or whether the person was actually guilty.
Foulkes and Docherty (1999): Urban Voices
- Studied forms of standardization across the UK.
- Looked at standardization of 'th fronting' ['th' → 'f' or 'v']
- Spread like:
London Area → South East → Central England → Northern England → NE of England + Lowlands of Scotland.
Howard Giles (1975): Speech Style and Social Evaluation
- Evaluated RP vs Brummie accent by 2 groups of 17 yr olds
- Although it was the same speaker using 2 different accents, when talking about psychology the teens thought the RP speaker had higher levels of competence and intelligence.
: over 40 years old, possible outdated. Also a very limited sample size.
Howard Giles (1973): Communicative effectiveness as a function of accented speech
- Studied a group of British teens that listened to arguments about the death penalty in different accents (teens from all over).
- observed teens more likely to value a person's argument if the speaker used a more 'prestigious' accent.
: sample size unclear and possibly an outdated study. It's also possible that teens tended to agree with a person of a similar accent. Furthermore, didn't take into account the actual argument of each person.
Hughes, Trudgill, and Watt (2012)
- Study depicts important distinguishing features of various British Regional Accents.
- i.e SE in London or Norwich = dance /ɑ:/
vs Bradford or West Midlands /æ/
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