Networks and web technologies

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World Wide Web (WWW)
A collection of pages that reside on computers which are connected to the internet
Internet
A network of networks set up to allow computers to communicate with each other globally.
Internet Service Providers (ISP)
Connect directly to a backbone of trans-continental cables and distribute internet connection to smaller providers who then provide access to individual users and businesses
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Full address of an internet resource. It specifies the location of the resource and the file type, so that a browser can request the page from the web server
Internet Registrars
Hold records of all existing website names and the details of domains which are available for users to purchase
Internet Registries
Global organisations with databases which hold details of all registered owners of domains
Domain Names System (DNS)
Registries allocate IP addresses and keep track of the address which a domain name is allocated as part of the DNS
Domain Name
Identifies the area or domain that an internet resource resides in. They are structured as a series of smaller domains, separated by full stops
Generic Top Level Domains (TLD's)
.com , .edu , .org
Country Top Level Domains
.uk , .fr , .de
2nd Level Domains
.co , .gov , .sch
3rd Level Domains
.bbc , .amazon , .salesian
Fully Qualified Domain Name
Includes the host server name, such as www. or mail.
IP Address
Unique address that is assigned to a network device. This indicates where a packet of data has been sent from or where it is to be sent.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A network of interconnected networks, and is made up of lots of LAN's. An example of this is the internet
Local Area Network (LAN)
Consists of a number of computing devices on a single site, connected with cables. They can transmit data very fast but only over short distances
Bus Topology
All computers are connected to a single backbone and the ends of the cable are plugged into a terminator
Star Topology
Has a central node (computer or switch) which acts as a router to transmit messages
Switch
Keeps a record of the unique MAC address of each device on a network and can identify the destination for data being sent across a network
Ring Topology
All data frames are sent in one direction in an attempt to prevent data collision. Each computer is connected to 2 other computers
Physical Topology
The actual design layout of a network
Logical Topology
The shape of the path in which data travels and describes how the components will communicate across the physical topology
Wireless Access Point (WAP)
A computer needs this hardware in order to connect to a wireless network. To connect to the internet, this device connects to a router and is sometimes integrated into the router itself
Mesh Topology
Each node has a connection to every other node and transmits data through intermediate nodes. One node is connected to the internet and all other nodes can share this
Circuit Switching
Creates a direct link between two devices for direct communication