Mississippi and Louisiana, in south-east USA, on 29th August 2005.
Where are Mississippi and Louisiana and why is this important?
The Gulf of Mexico where sea temperatures are often 27 degrees Celsius or warmer - this means tropical storms can form.
Where did Katrina originally form?
200 miles south-east of the Bahamas.
Where did Katrina move to?
North-west over the southern tip of Florida into the Gulf of Mexico.
What happened as Katrina moved?
The warm water of the Gulf of Mexico allowed it to become even stronger.
How fast were the winds on 29th August?
How much rain fell in Louisiana?
How powerful was the storm surge in Missippi?
How many people were killed due to Katrina?
How many houses were destroyed by Katrina?
How much of New Orleans was flooded as a result of Katrina?
What did Katrina do to infrastructure?
Roads were damaged and bridges collapsed.
How many people were left without electricity due to Katrina?
How did Katrina impact coastal habitats?
They were damaged.
How many people lost jobs due to Katrina?
230 000 due to damaged businesses.
What did Katrina do to water supplies?
They were polluted with sewage and chemicals.
Why were rescue and recovery efforts for Katrina hampered?
Due to disagreements between national, state, and local officials.
How much of New Orleans was evacuated due to Katrina?
70-80% before she even hit.
What was set up in Mississippi and Louisiana due to Katrina?
After being declared states of emergency, control centers, emergency shelters, and stockpiled supplies were provided.
How many people were rescued after Katrina?
50 000 people.
How much was provided to rebuild homes after Katrina?
16 billion dollars
What did the army recommend after Katrina?
Building be rebuilt on stilts or not rebuilt at all in very low-lying areas.
How much did the repaired and improved flood defenses cost for New Orleans after Katrina?
14.5 million dollars. They were completed in 2013.
What is a heatwave?
A long period when the temperature is much higher than normal.
How are heatwaves caused?
When anticyclones stay in the same place for some time.
What is an anticyclone?
An area of high pressure.
When was the European heatwave?
Where was the anticyclone responsible for the European heatwave?
In western Europe for most of August 2003.
Why were the temperatures in the UK higher than normal in August 2003?
Air moving clockwise around the anticyclone brought hot, dry air from central Europe to western Europe.
Why was rainfall lower than normal in the UK in August 2003?
The anticyclone blocked low pressure systems that normally brought cooler, rainier conditions from the Atlantic Ocean.
How did the European heatwave impact people's health in the UK?
Caused heat stroke, dehydration, sunburn, and breathing problems.
How many people died in the UK due to the European heatwave?
How many people were struck by lightening caused by the European heatwave?
How were water supplied affected by the European heatwave?
Water levels fell in reservoirs - water supplies to houses and businesses were threatened.
What happened to crop yields as a result of the European heatwave?
They were lower.
How were trains and traffic affected by the European heatwave?
Trains were disrupted by rails buckling in the heat and some roads melted, which caused delays.
How did the NHS respond to the European heatwave?
Gave guidance to people on how to survive the heatwave.
How did the UK save water during the European heatwave?
Limitations were put on water e.g hosepipe ban.
How did the railway respond the issues caused by the European heatwave?
Speed limit imposed on trains due to rails buckling, some rails painted white to reflect the heat and keep them cooler.
What was the heatwave plan?
Created by UK to minimize the consequences of future heatwaves.
What plate boundary is Haiti on?
Caribbean and North American plate boundary - a conservative plate boundary.
What caused the Haitian earthquake?
A slippage along the conservative plate boundary.
When was the Haitian earthquake?
12th January 2010.
What magnitude was the Haitian Earthquake?
How many people died due to the Haitian earthquake?
Over 220 000 people.
How many people were injured due to the Haitian earthquake?
300 000 injured.
How many people were made homeless due to the Haitian earthquake?
1.3 million made homeless.
How many commercial buildings collapsed due to the Haitian earthquake?
30 000 buildings.
What were the main primary responses to the Haitian earthquake?
Search and rescue teams sent by several countries and temporary field hospitals set up.
What were the main secondary responses to the Haitian earthquake?
Aid was sent by the UN and the Dominican republic.
Where is the Dorset Coast?
On the south coast of England.
Why is the Dorset Coast known as the Jurassic Coast?
It has lots of fossils dating back to the Jurassic period.
What land forms have been created by geomorphic processes on the Dorset Coast?
Durdle Door, Old Harry and his Wife, Chesil Beach, Lulworth Cove, Swanage Bay.
What is Durdle Door?
An arch formed on hard limestone headland.
How was Durdle Door formed?
Erosion by waves opened up a crack in the headland.
How is Durdle Door being broken down?
By mechanical, chemical, and biological weathering.
What is Old Harry and his Wife?
Old Harry is a stack, his Wife is a stump.
How were Old Harry and his Wife formed?
An arch at the end of a headland has collapsed.
How are Old Harry and his Wife being worn down?
Salt, carbonation weathering, and erosion.
What is Chesil Beach?
How was Chesil Beach formed?
By long shore drift.
What is Lulworth Cove?
A small bay
How was Lulworth Cove formed?
A gap was eroded in a band of limestone. Behind the limestone is soft clay that was eroded faster, so the bay formed.
What are the coastal management strategies on the Dorset Coast?
Groynes, Sea Walls, and Beach Replacement.
What are Groynes?
Groynes are wooden fences that are built at right angles to the coast.
Why are Groynes used at Swanage Bay?
They trap material transported by longshore drift. This creates wider beaches which slow the waves.
When were the Groynes installed at Swanage Bay?
What are Sea Walls?
Concrete walls that reflect waves back out to sea, preventing the erosion of coast.
What are the issues with Sea Walls?
Create a strong backwash which removes sediment from the beach and prevents cliffs from eroding and replenishing the beach.
Where are the Sea Walls at Swanage Beach?
Along most of the beach.
When was Swanage Beach replenished?
Winter 2005/2006 with sand and shingle.
What are the problems with beach replenishment?
Costs £5 million and needs to be done every 20 years.
Where does the River Thames flow?
From Thames Head in Gloucestershire to the North Sea at the Thames Estuary.
How long is the River Thames?
Why does the Thames have a high rate of surface run-off?
The areas around the Thames are densely populated, and there is a large amount of impermeable surfaces in London.
How big is the Thames River Basin?
16 133 square km
What is the average rainfall in the Cotswolds?
What is the average rainfall in London city center during summertime?
What factors affect the discharge of the Thames?
Flat land, rock type, rainfall, weather conditions, tributaries.
What rock type is at the source of the Thames?
What rock type is at the majority of the Thames, including the mouth?
Impermeable London clay.
Where is the Amazon Rainforest?
In the north of South America.
How big is the Amazon Rainforest?
8 million km squared.
What sustainable management strategies are in the Amazon Rainforest?
Sustainable forestry, community programmes, ecotourism, biosphere reserves.
What is sustainable forestry?
Balances the removal of trees using selective logging so that the forest can regenerate.
What are community programmes?
It employs local people to teach other people in the community community about how they can protect endangered river animals and their habitat.
What is ecotourism?
Minimizes harm to the environment by making people pay to enter and visit in small groups.
What are biosphere reserves?
An internationally recognized protected area that aims to combine conservation and sustainable use.
What is the Antarctic Treaty?
An agreement made by 12 countries in 1959 about how to sustainably manage Antarctica's ecosystems.
What are the terms of the Antarctic Treaty?
No mineral exploitation, conserved plants and animals, protected environments, minimised waste, no non-native species, 100 visitors at once, no cruise ships with more than 500 passengers allowed to stop.
What is whaling?
The capture and killing of whales for food or materials.
When is whaling sustainable?
When it is done by Inuits using small boats, simple harpoons, and ropes. They catch wales one at a time and utilise the entire whale.
What had happened to whaling by the 20th century?
Whaling grew to an industrial scale. Factory ships were introduced, harvesting whales in large numbers
How many whales were being killed yearly by 1930?
50 000 a year. It was unsustainable.
When was the International Whaling Commission (IWC) set up?
1946. Helped to conserve whales and control the whaling industry.
What did the IWC do in 1986?
Banned commercial whaling - loopholes in the ban have allowed some countries to carry on by calling it "scientific research".
How many whales have been killed since the ban in 1986?
30 000 whales, mostly by Japan and Norway. Sustainable whaling by Inuits continues.
GCSE Geography A Unit 1 - Restless Earth notes92 terms