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1.8 Ethical, legal, cultural and environmental concerns
Terms in this set (22)
Is an agreed set of principles that people should try to follow. We are referring to the things that people think are right or wrong.
Concerns over whether a course of action is against the law.
How does computer technology affect the culture in which we live? Think about how disadvantaged poor countries or low-income families are if they can't access the internet for example. How does it affect their abilities to learn, find out about their world or even search for jobs? Consider the current debates over 'fake news'. How has that affected our politics?
How have the energy requirements of digital devices affected the environment? What can be done to minimise the damage? What about disposal of old machines? What are the risks? What can be done about it?
Issues that risk the security of personal information. Networks, online accounts and personal computers are all vulnerable to data monitoring or interception. This can lead to sabotage or identity theft.
All people or groups of people that stand to be affected by a situation. Example: changing school holiday dates would affect students, parents, teachers, support staff, holiday companies, motorists (through changes in traffic congestion), childminders and more...
Open Source Software
Source code is available freely to the public to change and use as they wish. All work is shared with the development community. It is often free of charge.
Benefits of Open Source Software
1. Low cost.
2. Strong community involvement.
3. Availability of existing projects for reference.
Drawbacks of Open Source Software
1. Software is not fully tested, it could have bugs.
2. No dedicated technical support - you are dependent on the community of users.
3. No regular updates or bug fixes.
Software owned by a company and used under license. Source code is not available. Usually chargeable - or paid for by other means, such as advertising or data collection.
Benefits of Proprietary Software
1. Usually well supported.
2. Regular updates.
3. More guarantees on reliability being a bought program.
4. No need to share your program with others.
Drawbacks of Proprietary Software
1. Can be expensive.
2. Can't change the source code to tailor the program to specific needs.
Data Protection Act (1998)
Personal data shall be:
1. Processed fairly and lawfully.
2. Obtained only for specified and lawful purposes. 3. Adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the intended purpose.
4. Accurate and kept up to date.
5. Not be kept for longer than is necessary for intended purpose.
6. Kept secure.
7. Kept within the European Economic Area.
Computer Misuse Act (1990)
It is an offence to:
1. Gain (or attempt to gain) unauthorised access to a private network or device.
2. Do so with the intention of committing a crime. 3. Alter digital files without permission. Make or supply malware.
Copyright Designs and Patents Act (1988)
It is illegal to share copyrighted material (art, photos, music, movies etc) without the copyright holder's permission.
Creative Commons Licensing
Authors can use these to allow others to legally share or adapt their work. There are four types of licence: Attribution, Share-alike, Non-commercial and No derivative works.
Work can be shared or adapted but the copyright holder must be credited.
Modified work must be shared with the same license as the original - you can't modify someone's CCL work then claim exclusive ownership of it.
Work cannot be used for profit.
No derivative works (CCL)
Work can be copied and shared but may not be edited or adapted.
Freedom of Information Act (2000)
Allows individuals to access information about a public organisation's practices. Applies to the NHS, police service, government and local councils. Some governmental and police information is considered sensitive and is exempt from this law.
The gap between those who have access to computers and the internet, and those who do not.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
1.6 System Security
1.1 Systems Architecture
1.2 - Memory
1.3 : Storage devices and media
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