Cell Biology AQA GCSE 1-9

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Prokaryote
these cells have a nucleus. Prokaryotes are animals and plants.
Eukaryotes
An organism which is a cell that does not have a nucleus - bacteria is a prokaryote
Bacteria
A single celled organism that does not have a nucleus
Nucleus
An organelle inside cells that contains the genes and controls the cell
Mitochondria
An organelle inside cell where respiration happens to give all cells energy
Ribosome
An organelle inside a cell where proteins are made
Chloroplast
An organelle inside plant cells and algae where photosynthesis takes place - they contain chlorophyll
Cell Membrane
holds a cell together and allows substances in a and out
Cell Wall
found around plant cells and bacterial cell which gives them shape and support
Vacuole
An organelle found inside plant cells which contains cell sap and helps give the cell shape
Organelle
A tiny structure found inside cells - e.g. Nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes
Light Microscope
These use glass lenses and light to magnify structures which you can then look at through an eyepiece
Electron Microscope
A large microscope which fires an electron beam at structures and gives an image on a computer screen showing the structure in great detail
Sperm Cell
A male gamete which contains half the DNA needed to make an organism. It has a tail to swim to the egg and lots of mitochondria to give it lots of energy to swim.
Nerve Cell
A cell which carries electrical impulses through the body. The brain is made of nerve cells or Neurones
Xylem
A tissue found in plants that carries water through the plant from the roots to the leaves.
Phloem
A tissue found in plants that carry sugar and food around a plant
Haemoglobin
A protein found in red blood cells which carries oxygen around the body
Red Blood Cell
A cell which carries oxygen around the body. They do not have a nucleus.
Chromosome
A long strand of DNA wound into an X shape which contains genes. Humans have 46 chromosomes in all of their cells , but not sperm or eggs
Gene
A section of DNA in a chromosome that codes for a certain characteristic.
Gamete
Another word for a sex cell - sperm and egg.
Stem Cell
A cell that has not specialised yet - it does not have a particular job and can differentiate into any type of cell
Differentiate
Where a cell turns into a specialised cell that has a particular job - e.g. Muscle, nerve, liver, heart.

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