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History: Conflict and Tension
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Terms in this set (61)
-1 million casualties
-2 million homeless
-750,000 homes destroyed
-4,800km of road
-large areas of farmland
Impact of WW1 on France
-Nearly one million casualties
-Great loss of men in communities
-Damaged buildings and 100 killed from air attacks
-Owed £1 million to USA
Impact of WW1 on Britain
-Almost two million casualties
-Damage from air attacks
-Ports blocked by Britain caused widespread starvation
Impact of WW1 on Germany
-Nearly two million casualties
-Gave up areas of land on western borders- 1/3 to Germany
Impact of WW1 on Russia
-Approx. 100,000 casualties
-Gave supplies to other countries who now owed them
Impact of WW1 on USA
-Land (including Alsace-Lorraine) and money
-Smaller German army
-Security on the border
Aims of Georges Clemenceau
-Germany to have a smaller navy than Britain
Aims of David-Lloyd George
-Had 14 points (included League of Nations)
Aims of Woodrow Wilson
-Alsace-Lorraine and other land
-Tiny German army
-Border security through demilitarised Rhineland
What Georges Clemenceau got
What David-Lloyd George got
-League of Nations, but USA Senate refused to join
What Woodrow Wilson got
-10% of Germany's land
-All overseas colonies
-16% of coalfields
-1/2 iron and steel industry
-12.5% of population
Terms of the ToV- Land
-100,000 soliders, volunteers
-No aircraft, submarines, tanks
-Saar ally-occupied for 15 years
Terms of ToV- Army
-Germany was set to pay £6.6 billion over 42 years
Terms of ToV- Money
Clause 231, the War Guilt Clause, justified blaming Germany for the war and setting the repirations
Terms of ToV- Blame
-Forced to sign (threatened with war, only agreed when Britain and France invaded)
-Pride hurt by Clause 231
-Loss of land and population would destroy economy
-Innocent Germans were misplaced
-League of Nations
-Britain and the USA were allies
Strengths of the ToV
-Failed peace, mostly about revenge
-Different leaders couldn't agree
-A reason for WW2
-How LAMB affected Germans
-Land was fought over
-Germany's economy was ruined
-USA didn't join, Germany and Russia not asked to join League of Nations
Weaknesses of the ToV
-All major nations would join
-Members would disarm
-Disputes taken to the League and any decision accepted
-Protect each other if attacked: The Covenant
-A member breaks The Covenant: faces sanctions, invasion
Aims of the League of Nations
-Met once a year, like a world council
-Each country had one vote, decisions were unanimous
-Smaller, met in crisis
-Had four permanent members (Japan, Britain, France and Italy) and four non-permanent members
-Moral- condemned actions
-Economic- Stopped trade
-Military- Sent troops from Britain and France
-Based in Geneva
-Handled reporting, statistics, administration
Attempted to persuade members to reduce weapons
-E.g. Health Organisation
-Looked into world problems
Improved working conditions, women's rights, helped refugees
International Labour Organisation
-Helped with legal conflicts
Permanent Court of Justice
-Americans hated the idea
-Already unhappy with WW1
-Wanted separation from Europe
-Had own problems
Why didn't USA join?
-In 1925, German foreign minister Gustav Streissman invited French foreign minister Aristide Briand to meet and sign a treaty to improve relations.
-Signed treaties that said Germany accepted the loss of land and improved relations.
-Happened outside of the League as Germany was not a member.
The Locarno Treaty
-In 1928 62 countries met in Paris and signed a peace agreement.
-Outside the League as the first involved were Germany, France and the USA.
-Showed League couldn't make practical solutions on its own
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
-Manchuria is in north-east Asia.
-It had rich resources of coal, minerals, lots of land and agriculture.
-Japan had already taken over four areas of land in China, but wanted Manchuria the most.
-They had already built the South Manchurian Railway there.
Manchurian Crisis- Intro
-On September 31st 1931, an explosion was reported at the railway.
-Japan claimed aggression by China, who denied it.
-But Japan invaded and took over in months.
-In February they had set up a puppet government and renamed the area Manchukuo.
Manchurian Crisis- What happened?
-China appealed to the League, and Japan claimed defence.
-The League hesitated because Japan was a major member and they had previously agreed Manchuria was an area of Japanese influence with trade rights.
-But Japan had used military aggression.
-Economic sanctions weren't used because of the Depression but a commission was set up when Japan ignored moral sanctions.
Manchurian Crisis- What did the League do?
-Lord Lytton from Britain was sent to Manchuria and wrote a fair report on the situation.
-It took months, finished a year after the crisis started.
-It favoured China. All but Japan accepted it.
-They left the League in 1933 after refusing to back down. In 1937 they began a complete invasion of China.
Manchurian Crisis- How did it end?
-Abyssinia was a poor, underdeveloped country in north-east Africa. It was next to Italian colonies.
-Italy had attempted to invade in 1896 but failed at the Battle of Adowan where 6,000 Italians were killed and the army's reputation was ruined.
-But Italy still wanted to invade.
Abyssinian Crisis- Intro
-In 1922 Mussolini started planning.
-He signed a peace treaty with leader Haile Selassie in 1928, but by 1934 Italian forces had lots of weapons on either side of the country.
-A clash at Wal-Wal between troops gave Mussolini the chance to accuse them of aggression.
-On October 3rd 1935 two Italian armies invaded with millions of tonnes of weapons. Abyssinia had spears and old rifles.
Abyssinian Crisis- What happened?
-Selassie appealed to the League who immediately issued a moral sanction and ordered the first economic sanction. But it took six weeks and not all took part.
-It also only banned steel, grain, gold and textiles, but not oil which even Mussolini admitted would have stopped him if included.
Abyssinian Crisis- What did the League do?
-Britain and France wanted to be on Mussolini's good side and started secret negotiations with Italy that got leaked to the press.
-This was the end of the League, with USA appalled, Hitler encouraged
-No League action was taken in 1935 or 1936. It disbanded in 1946.
Abyssinian Crisis- How did it end?
-Destroy the ToV
-Bring all German-speaking people under German control
-Expand eastwards for lebensraum
-Destroy the USSR and use it as farming space
-Nazi activists killed Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian chancellor.
-Aimed to overthrow the government but Kurt von Schuschnigg and Mussolini threatened them to back down.
-The Spanish Civil War broke out and Mussolini supported the fascist Francisco Franco. Hitler used it to give troops experience.
-Brought Germany and Italy closer and they signed the Rome-Berlin Axis.
Italy, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact to prevent communism spreading.
-In January, Shuschnigg learned of plans for Austrian revolution and went to Hitler for help, who berated him and then demanded Nazi positions in the Austrian government.
-Schuschnigg went back and arranged a plebiscite to see if people wanted Anschluss. Fearing the vote would be 'no' Hitler threatened invasion.
-Nazis rioted, Shuschnigg resigned and Seyss-Inquart invited Hitler to 'restore order'. 80,000 opponents of Hitler were arrested.
-On 12th March Hitler went to Austria in triumph and on the 14th 99.75% voted 'yes'. There was no opposition from Britain and France, who weren't prepared for war.
-The ToV had taken it away from Germany for 15 years.
-Was rich in coal and industry.
-After 15 years, a plebiscite was held to see if Saarlanders wanted to stay with the League of Nations (8%), join France (2%) or re-join Germany (90%).
-Success for Hitler in aims 1 and 2 and gave Nazis rich resources.
Signed in 1935 by Britain, France and Italy, promising to unite against Germany's attempts to change the ToV.
Signed in 1935, allowing Germany to have a fleet no bigger than 35% of Britain's.
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
-On 7th March 1936, Hitler ordered 32,000 troops and armed police into the Rhineland.
-Citizens went wild with delight, celebrating the soldiers, who carried few weapons.
-The Generals had orders to retreat if they met any opposition. Hitler considered this his biggest gamble.
The Rhineland- What happened?
-France and Britain were focusing on Abyssinia and public opinion was that the ToV had been too harsh.
-Hitler correctly guessed the League wouldn't take action, only condemning it.
-Britain thought allowing it would secure German relations.
-France was having an election.
The Rhineland- Why wasn't it stopped?
-Without it, politics would be just fighting
-America was isolated, France didn't want war, Britain couldn't fight alone
-War would happen anyway and League was weak, Hitler aggressive
-Popular with general public
-Britain had poor military, needed to defend her empire, anti-war mindset, bad economy
-At first allowed justice for the ToV
-Left millions to Nazi terror
-A 'piece of paper' wouldn't stop Hitler
-Encouraged fascists to build empires
-Was just yielding and compromising to Hitler, who would never be satisfied
-Obvious the League wouldn't act
-In 1928 Czechoslovakia had a large army and strong defence in the Sudetenland, a western region bordering Germany.
-It had armaments factories, defence agreements with France and the USSR and large coal deposits.
-Hitler wanted it for aim 2 and 3.
-The population included 3-million German-speaking people from the Austro-Hungarian empire, giving Hitler an excuse to confront them.
The Sudetenland- Intro
-Hitler urged Czech Nazis, led by Konrad Henlein to demand concessions from the government.
-In April 1938 German troops began massing on the border and the president mobilised his own.
-On 12th September Sudeten Nazis rioted, encourage by Hitler, but were stopped by the government.
-Hitler threatened war.
The Sudetenland- What happened?
-Chamberlain persuaded Czechoslovakia to agree to give Germany parts of the Sudetenland where the majority were German-speaking.
-But when he proposed this to Hitler on the 22nd September, he refused. Chamberlain denied him more.
The Sudetenland- What next?
-Mussolini persuaded Hitler to go to a conference in Munich on the 29th September with Britain, France and Italy, but no Czechoslovakia or the USSR.
-Decided Sudetenland should go to Germany, Britain and France forced Czechoslovakia to accept and German armies occupied it by October 1st.
-The day after, Chamberlain signed another deal with Hitler promising to not go to war. He was seen as hero by some, but others had doubts.
The Sudetenland- How did it end?
-Czechoslovakia lost territory to Poland in October 1938 and Hungary in November.
-Sudeten Germans inspired others to demand a return to their states.
-In 1939 Slovaks demanded more rights and the new president, Emil Hacha, asked Hitler for help. He had no choice.
The rest of Czechoslovakia- part 1
-On 15th March 1939 Nazis marched into Prague and took control.
-Britain and France didn't stop them as they were invited, but Chamberlain's opinion of Hitler had changed. He had showed himself as an aggressor.
-Britain introduced conscription in peacetime for the first time.
The rest of Czechoslovakia- part 2
-Politicians guessed Hitler's next target would be Poland, so Chamberlain promised to defend it although too far away and had a small army.
-In April 1939, Stalin suggested an alliance with Russia, France and Britain against Germany.
-Hitler wouldn't invade Poland if it meant war with Russia, but negotiations dragged as Chamberlain didn't like communism, Poland wouldn't let Russian troops in and Stalin didn't trust France or Britain to resist Germany.
Nazi-Soviet pact- Intro
-On August 23rd 1939 Hitler made the Nazi-Societ Pact with Stalin, promising not to go to war and in secret clauses, to invade Poland together.
-Stalin signed because he needed time to re-arm against Hitler, could avoid war, lost patience with Britain and France and thought the Munich conference had been about guiding Hitler to attack Russia.
Nazi-Soviet Pact- What happened?
-Germany attacked on 1st September 1939. Polish army was defeated in weeks.
-Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3rd September 1939.
-USSR invaded eastern Poland and they divided it as stated in the Pact.
Invasion of Poland
-Invaded Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland
-Ignored peace conferences offered
-Pretended to be peaceful
-Walked out Disarmament Conference in 1933
-Went against ToV
-Introduced conscription, re-armed
-Didn't keep promises like Locarno Treaty
Is WW2 Hitler's fault- Yes
-ToV was too strict
-Chamberlain should have done more
-Obvious the League wouldn't act
-Britain allowed Rhineland to be remilitarised
-Gave into Hitler invading
-Other countries could have disarmed
-League did nothing
-Britain should have acted faster in allying with USSR
Is WW2 Hitler's fault- No
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