Terms in this set (84)
What are the assumptions in behaviorism?
-All behaviours learnt from our environment.
-Focus on observable behaviour (behaviour that can be seen).
-Animals and humans learn in similar ways so behaviourists do experiments on animals and extrapolate to humans.
-Psychology should be scientific and objective therefore behaviourists use mainly lab experiments to achieve this.
What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association.
Who was the first to demonstrate classical conditioning?
What did his research on classical conditioning show?
-Neutral Stimulus becomes associated with Unconditioned Stimulus.
-When Neutral Stimulus shown it'll produce Unconditioned Response similar to the Unconditioned Stimulus.
-Neutral Stimulus has become Conditioned Stimulus and produces Conditioned Response every time it is presented.
How is classical conditioning shown through Pavlov's study on dogs
NS - Bell
UCS - Food
UCR - Salivation
NS + UCS ~ UCR
CS - Bell
CR - Salivation
He measured the amount of saliva produced before and after conditioning.
What is operant conditioning?
Learning through reinforcement and punishment.
What is positive reinforcement?
Receiving a reward.
What is negative reinforcement?
Removing an unpleasant stimulus when a desirable behaviour is shown.
What is punishment?
Unpleasant consequence for undesirable behavior e.g. being grounded for not doing your psychology homework.
What was the study Skinner was testing on rats for operant conditioning?
Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
What was the method Skinner used to test positive and negative reinforcement on rats?
1) Rats kept in small confined box and each time a lever was pressed, food was dispensed, over time rats performed same behaviour again for food.
2) Negative reinforcement, constant electric presented to rats, pressing the lever would remove unpleasant stimulus, rats learned to repeat that behaviour.
What are the applications of behaviourism?
-Increased understanding of causes of phobias and attachment.
-Rise to therapies e.g. systematic desensitisation and token economy.
What experimental support behaviourism have?
Watson and Rayner showed phobias can be learnt through classical conditioning in the "little Albert" experiment.
What scientific methods did behaviourism introduce to psychology?
Lab experiments used for high control of extraneous variables. Experiments were replicable and data obtained was objective and measurable. Gave psychology more credibility.
What is the mechanistic view on behaviourism?
Experiments carried out on animals; humans are different cognitively and physiologically, different social norms and moral values which effects the environment therefore we behave differently from animals so laws and principles derived from the experiment apply to animals than humans.
What are the limitations to the study of behaviourism?
-Doesn't explain important aspects of human behaviour e.g. memory and problem solving which are internal mental events and cannot be observed.
-Doesn't account for biological factors e.g. the role of neurotransmitters, i.e. low level of serotonin can increase depression or high level of dopamine involved with OCD.
What is the deterministic view on the study of behaviourism?
Ignores any possible influence of free will when learning. Suggests we don't process learning but simply unconsciously learn behaviours.
What are the ethical issues on the study of behaviourism?
Neglects the influence of free will as it argues that our behaviour is the result of previous conditioning. Skinner argues that free will is an illusion.
Who created Social Learning Theory (SLT)?
Bandura (1961 for Bobo doll study)
What did Bandura agree with the behaviourists about?
Behaviour is learnt through experience
What did Bandura argue against the behaviourists?
Behaviour is learnt through observation and imitation of others' behaviour.
What is are the 4 Mediational processes (cognitive factors)?
Attention, retention, reproduction and motivation.
What is Attention in Social Learning Theory?
The extent in which we observe behaviours
What is Retention is Social Learning Theory?
How well the behaviour is remembered
What is Reproduction in Social Learning Theory?
The ability to perform that specific behaviour
What is Motivation in Social Learning Theory?
Reason for reproducing that specific behaviour, determined by whether the behaviour was punished or rewarded
What is Vicarious reinforcement?
Reinforcement that's not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour.
What is Modelling in Social Learning Theory?
-Observer - Imitating behaviour of a role model.
-Role Model - Precise demonstration of specific behaviour that may be imitated.
When is Imitation most likely to happen?
-If the model is positively rewarded.
-Identifying the model, sharing similar characteristics e.g. age, gender, social status.
What is Identification in Social Learning Theory?
Associating themselves with the role model. People (especially children) more likely to imitate if they can identify with the role model.
What type of experiment was the Bobo doll study for Social Learning Theory?
What was the sample of people Bandura used for his study?
36 boys and 36 girls aged 3-6
What were the 3 conditions for the Bobo doll study?
-Group 1: 12 girls and 12 boys shown a model hitting the doll with a hammer and shouting at the doll.
-Group 2: 12 girls and 12 boys shown non-aggressive model.
-Group 3: 12 girls and 12 boys (control group) weren't shown a model.
What happened with the children after the 3 conditions?
Individually taken into a room with attractive toys and told not to play with (aggression arousal). Then, they were taken into a different room with a bobo doll and with non-aggressive toys e.g. pencils, plastic farm animals etc.
What are the results of the Bobo doll study?
-Group 1 were more aggressive.
-Group 1 imitated specific aggressiveness
-Boys imitated more physical aggressive acts than girls
-No difference in verbal aggression.
What is the conclusion of the Bobo doll study?
Supports SLT as children imitated behaviour of role model even if the behaviour is aggressive.
What was Bandura and Walters (1963) testing on a repeat experiment on the Bobo doll?
3 groups exposed to an aggressive model and saw different consequences for the model
What were the 3 conditions in the repeat experiment of the Bobo doll (1963)?
-Group 1: model was praised
-Group 2: model was punished (told off)
-Group 3: no consequences for the aggressive behaviour
What are the results that Bandura and Walters found in the repeat experiment on the Bobo doll?
When left alone to play:
-Group 1 was most aggressive
-Then Group 3
-Group 2 was the least aggressive
What is the conclusion that Bandura and Walters found in the repeat experiment on the Bobo doll?
Shows that imitation is more likely to occur when the model is positively reinforced, demonstrating the importance of vicarious reinforcement.
What are the applications of SLT?
Explain the influence of the media on behaviour e.g. used in court fro the murder of Jamie Bulger (1990). Perpetrators (children) claimed to be influenced by the film Child Play 3. These children came from disturbed families who might have witness real life violence and social deprivation.
Who's theories supports SLT?
Bandura (1961) and Bandura and Walters (1963).
What are the limitations of SLT?
They're lab experiments and so aren't generalisable. Also the kids know Bobo dolls don't feel pain. They are in an unfamiliar environment so demand characteristics are present.
What underestimations does SLT have on biological factors?
Testosterone levels in both girls and boys no taken into account.
What explanations does SLT have on other studies?
-Difference in behaviour between different cultures, explains why groups are non-violent.
-Influence of media on aggressive behaviour.
Is there any importance of the cognitive factors in SLT?
Neither Classical nor Operant Conditioning can offer adequate account of learning, more comprehensive of human learning as it recognises mediational processes.
What is the less deterministic view on SLT?
Doesn't take into account free will and moral values.
Is behaviourism nature of nurture?
-Behaviourism more nurture as it argues that our behaviour is learnt from the environment.
-SLT also on nurture because it argues that we learn our behaviour from role models in our environment.
-Behaviourist approach proposes apart from a few innate reflexes and the capacity for learning, all complex behaviour is learned from the environment.
Is behaviourism holism or reductionism?
-Behaviourist approach and SLT are reductionist; they isolate parts of complex behaviours to study.
-Behaviourists think that all behaviour, however complex, broken down into fundamental processes of conditioning.
Is behaviourism idiographic or nomothetic?
-Nomothetic approach as it views all behaviour governed by the same laws of conditioning.
-It does account for individual differences and explain them in terms of difference of history of conditioning.
What has the Cognitive Approach been influenced by?
Computer science and analogies often made between how a computer works and how we process information.
What is cognitive psychology interested in from computer analogy?
How the brain inputs, stores and retrieves information.
What models have been created to show information flowing the cognitive system?
The Multi-Store Model of Memory
What are the assumptions of the cognitive approach?
-Main assumption is information received from our senses is processed by the brain and that it directs how we behave.
-Internal mental processes can't be observed directly but can infer what a person is thinking based on how they act.
What is a schema?
-A schema is a "packet of information" or cognitive framework that helps us organise and interpret information. -They are based on our previous experience.
What do schemas help us with?
Interpret incoming information quickly and effectively, prevents from being overwhelmed by vast amount of information we perceive in our environment.
What is the problem with schemas?
Distortion of information as we select and interpret environmental stimuli using schemas, can be irrelevant. Could be the cause of inaccuracies e.g. eyewitness testimony. Explains some errors made when perceiving optical illusions.
What is an evaluation of schemas?
Prejudice and stereotypes, e.g associating terrorist attacks with a certain race
What are the aims of neuroscience?
How the brain structure influence the way we process information and map mental cognitive functions to specific areas of the brain.
What brain imaging techniques are used for neuroscience?
fMRI and PET scans.
What is an example of brain mapping?
Braver et al. (1997) found when participants were performing activities with the central executive while scanning the prefrontal cortex, showed greater activity. Shows central executive is situated in the prefrontal cortex.
What lab experiment is used for the research of the cognitive approach?
-It's preferred for experiments i.e. Loftus and Palmer (1974) - Car Crash Study. The extraneous variables are tightly controlled so can be replicated, but lack ecological validity as the place and the tasks are artificial.
-E.g. real life witnesses of a car crash wouldn't be interviewed by a psychologists but policeman/woman and would know the consequences to what you say so might be more careful with the answers. Participants influenced by demand characteristics.
What case studies are used for the research on the cognitive approach?
-Used to study rare conditions which provide an insight on how the mental processes work i.e. Clive Wearing, HM.
-Case studies deal with small samples, results can't be generalised to wider population as they are influenced by individual characteristics, allowed to study cases which can't be produced experimentally due to ethical and practical reasons.
What are the applications of the cognitive approach?
-Study of memory lead to development of cognitive interview which decreased the inaccuracy of eyewitness memory; should decrease wrongful convictions.
-Causes of depression and the approach. Also proposed CBT therapy which is effective for a range of mental disorders and unlike drugs has no side effects.
Is the cognitive approach free will or deterministic?
-It is unclear as it argues the way we process information is determined by our past experience (schemas)
-The therapy derived from the approach (CBT) argues that we change the way we think.
Is the cognitive approach nature or nurture?
Interaction it's view as it argues that our behaviour is influenced by learning and experience (nature), but some of our brains' innate capacities as informs processors e.g. language acquisition (nature)
Is the cognitive approach holism or reductionism?
Reductionist as when studying a variable it isolates processes e.g. memory from other cognitive processes. Our normal life would use many cognitive processes simultaneously, so lacks validity
Is the cognitive approach idiographic or nomothetic?
Nomothetic as it focuses on establishing theories on information processing that apply to all people
Are the research methods used for the cognitive approach scientific?
Lab experiments are used which are highly controlled so are replicable. It measures non-observable behaviours; so could be argued that it's not scientific as the behaviourist approach
What does the influence of genes on our behaviour cover?
Genetic inheritance and genotypes and phenotypes
What does the influence of biological structures cover?
Neurons and the nervous system and the brain
What does the influence of neurochemistry on behavior cover?
Neurotransmitters and hormones
What does the influence of evolution on behavior cover?
Darwin's evolutionary theory
What is Genetic inheritance?
50% each of parents' genes, so share physical and psychological characteristics with parents. Elicits the nature and nurture debate.
What is a genotype?
The genetic code written into the DNA of individual cells
What is a phenotype?
Physical appearance of the genetic code on the individual
What are neurons?
Transmit impulses in the form of electrical signals.
What is the nervous system?
The CNS and the PNS; carries messages from one part of our bodies to another using nerve cells (neurons).
What is the biological approach on the brain?
The largest part is the Cerebrum (85% of its mass); it is divided into two halves (hemispheres), each further divided into four different parts (lobes).
What are neurotransmitters?
A chemical released when an electrical nerve impulse reaches the end of a neuron. They travel across neuron junctions (synapses) and can be excitatory and inhibitory
What are hormones?
Chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands; the presence causes a physiological reaction in a cell, altering its activity.
What is the evolutionary theory?
Darwin put forth that organisms become adapted over time to their environment by a process called natural selection.
What are the Aplications of the Biological Approach?
-Understanding the role of neurotransmitters has led to the development of drugs which are effective in the treatment of mental disorders such as schizophrenia and depression.
-Enables many sufferers to have a fairly normal life.
-However these drugs are not effective for all patients and can cause serious side effects and they do not cure the disorders as if the patients stop taking the drug the symptoms reappear.
Just need to do evaluation