45 terms

RE GCSE Edexcel 9-1 - Catholic Christianity, Forms of Expression and Ways of Life

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Terms in this set (...)

Meaning of 'church'
- Comes from Greek word which means 'house of the Lord'
- Before it was just simply the gathered people
Role of Church buildings
- Place of worship where communities regularly GATHER to celebrate their faith
- Architecture, design and decoration HELP Catholic Christians to worship
- Most Cath. churches in the UK have been built since 1829 (when it became legal again after the Reformation)
How church design reflects belief
- Churches are built facing east because Jesus rose and brought NEW life, just as the sun rises from the east
- Many churches are cruciform which reflects the cross as a SYMBOL of the Church
- Round churches are said to represent ETERNITY and octagonal churches reflect a STAR bringing light to the world
- Churches are often VAULTED inside and pointed upwards, suggesting a connection with heaven
How churches are used
- Worship; Mass must be celebrated at least EVERY Sunday as it is a sacrament of the Eucharist
- Other uses; open throughout the DAY; Catholics may use VOTIVE candles for personal prayer use
Why do internal features of the Church matter?
- Help maintains the Church as the 'House of God' CCC 2691
The lectern
- Book stand from which the READINGS are proclaimed
- Catholics believe the Bible is the Word of God where he communicates
- The lectern REPRESENTS this communication
The altar
- Focus of attention during the SECOND half of the mass; the Eucharist is consecrated here
- Represents the table at the Last Supper
- Built from stone or contains a piece of stone as God told MOSES to build one from stone
- New Test. repeats the idea of a STRONG foundation of stone
The crucifix
- Powerful reminder of Jesus' sacrifice to REDEEM the human race
- Catholics look at it during prayer to STRENGTHEN feelings of love and trust as they remember the sacrifice
The tabernacle
- The consecrated host is kept here
- Catholics GENUFLECT to it as they believe Jesus is truly present in the BLESSED SACRAMENT
- Moses kept the 10 Commandments in here; LINK between the old and new covenants
Baptismal font
- Was found at the back so babies could be baptised as soon as they enter for the FIRST time
- Now at the front so the congregation can witness
- Holy water washes away original sin and brings SANCTIFYING grace to the individuals soul
Other features of a church
- The confessional; small room for PRIVATE conversation during reconciliation
- Stations of the Cross; images of Christ's Passion that often end at the tabernacle
- Statues; visual aids to assist worship and reminders of Cath. beliefs about the SAINTS
- Water stoup; contains holy water to make the sign of the cross with and reminds the congregation of their baptism and belief in the TRINITY
Sacred objects
- Items used during the liturgy
- Can help FOCUS the mind and beliefs
Sacred vessels
- Chalice for the wine
- Paten the plate which holds the LARGER host held up during consecration
- Ciborium contains the hosts before AND after consecration
Other items used during the mass (non-sacred)
- Cloths
- Books e.g the lectionary which dictates the readings for the mass
- Sacred vestments that the priest wears
Sarcophagi
- A container for a corpse that is CARVED in stone and displayed above ground
- Tombs were found with inscriptions indicating the belief in awaiting RESURRECTION
- Used as objects of DEVOTION as they are a physical reminder of the occupant
Hunger cloths
- Used during middle ages to COVER the altar during Lent
- Images and stories from the Bible to help people LEARN about God
- Now used in developing countries to signify that God is with people in their lives DESPITE their struggles
Meaning of artwork
- Often tries to capture an image or story from the Bible
- Visual expression of FAITH and helps with illustrating teachings of the Church
Use of Icons
- Some denominations believe such art disobeyed the FOURTH Commandment
- Most were destroyed in the ICONOCLASM in the 8th and 9th century by Christians who believed they were BLASPHEMY
- The Church condemned iconoclasts and encouraged the use of icons at the Second Council of Nicaea
Renaissance art (1300-1700ce)
.- Focused on religious themes or stories from the Bible
Modern Christian art
- Was originally important when many ordinary Catholics could NOT read or write
- Art was used to revisit stories from the Bible
- Expressed the stories in a more UNDERSTANDABLE way
- Used to enhance belief
- Can CHALLENGE Catholics as the artist is showing their own interpretation
Examples of Catholic Art
- Sistine Chapel on the ceiling of the VATICAN by Michelangelo - Creation of Adam is the most famous - PROMPTED many theological discussions
- Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt - allows ordinary Christians to EXPLORE some of the meaning in the original parable
Use of art in church & other settings
- It is the RESPONSIBILITY of bishops to promote sacred art and to remove anything that does not meet the Church's STANDARDS
- Catholic art is not restricted to RELIGIOUS settings
- Can be brought into the home as a DAILY visual reminder
Sculptures and statues
- Recall the thing/person being depicted
- Many were DESTROYED by Protestants during the Reformation as they were seen as idols
- They are an AID to prayer
- Must not be thrown away or sold or burned when no longer needed as they are DEDICATED to God
Christian disagreement (statues)
- Council of Trent was held during 1545-63 to discuss REFORM within the Church
- Confirmed statues were NOT idol worship, but honour shown to those represented
Expressions of belief (statues)
- 3D nature can make a connection that feels more REAL
- Creation of art should be MODERATE; have to be approved by the local bishop
- Devotion can be shown by kneeling before, touching and praying before them
Use in church and other settings (statues)
- Usually has one of MARY on a separate altar
- Good Friday liturgy; veneration of the cross takes place to express THANKSGIVING for the sacrifice
- Can be used during PRIVATE prayer
Symbolism and imagery
- Christianity was not a LEGAL religion until 313ce so early Christians used images which contained symbolism to AVOID detection
- Early imagery would only be recognised by those who were Christians
The cross and crucifix (imagery)
- Clear reminder of Jesus' death and resurrection
- Often used as a focus for prayer
- Worn by Christians today to show their faith
The fish/ichthus
- Was of MORE importance for early Christians than the cross because of its meaning in the ACROSTIC
- Connected to the apostles and events in Jesus' life
Chi rho
- Made from the first TWO letters of the Greek word for Christ (XP)
- Used by Christians before Christianity was adopted by the ROMAN Empire
The dove
- Symbol of baptism and the Holy Spirit
- The flood for which Noah built his ARK symbolises baptism
- Dove is used as a symbol of PEACE by theists and non-theists
The eagle
- Symbol of Jesus' divine nature
- Isaiah 40:31 (check quote quiz)
- Also a symbol of the evangelist John
Alpha and Omega
- First and last letters of the Greek alphabet
- Revelation 22:13
- Used today to represent the ETERNITY of Christ as part of the Trinity
- Found on the Paschal Candle
The evangelists (Gospel writers)
- Linked to four living creatures surrounding God's throne
- Mathew= Angel, Mark = Lion, Luke = Ox, John = Eagle
- Often found around the altar or stained-glass windows
Meaning of drama
- Many dramatic moments and stories are found WITHIN the Bible
- Many Catholics were illiterate and did not understand Latin so visual acts helped them UNDERSTAND the stories
Mystery plays (drama)
- Focused on performing Bible stories sometimes in the form of tableaux
- Pope Innocent III banned clergy from being involved in the plays in 1210
- Banned from England completely during the Reformation
Passion plays
- Dramatic presentation depicting the Passion of Christ
- Became popular in medieval times, originally in LATIN then the local language
- Banned in many places as part of the Reformation
- Commonly performed at Easter
Expressing belief (drama)
- Brings REALISM to the stories of the Bible
- Helps people understand and remember
- Act of worship and focus for prayer and devotion
- More impactful than simply hearing the text
- Usually attempt to recast the story in CONTEMPORARY terms to make the story relevant to MODERN experience
Use in church and other settings (drama)
- Mystery/Passion plays do not take place WITHIN the Church as part of worship
- The church may be used as a PERFORMANCE space for the plays
- Often take place in public areas involving Christians and non-Christians
Traditional music in worship
- The music connects to the ORDER of the liturgy
- An important part of worship
Hymns
- Religious song written specifically for the purpose of PRAISE
- May link to the readings or theme of the MASS or Church season
Plainchant
- Singing without any musical accompaniment
- e.g Gregorian chant is often sung in Catholic churches and monasteries
Psalms
- In both the Tenakh and Bible
- Written over a period of 500 years
- Still sung daily by religious orders
- The second reading in the Mass usually a RESPONSORIAL psalm
Contemporary music in worship
- Developed since the 1950s
- Often linked to the charismatic movement
- Often thought to APPEAL to younger Christians
- Seen as a way of allowing an experience of the Holy Spirit
Expressing belief (music)
- Music can allow the congregation to express their beliefs together
- Plainchant, hymns and psalms are traditional forms of WORSHIP and praise
- Core teachings of Christianity can be FOUND within the words of Christian hymns