Terms in this set (58)
a cell that does a particular action in the body or plant
red blood cell
found in the circulatory system travelling in blood vessels. collects oxygen from lungs and carrys around the system. contains hoemaglobin which sticks to oxygen cells. It can bend
white blood cell
found in circulatory system travelling in blood vessels. detects and locates foreign cells like bacteria. is a large cell so can engulf most other cells
in plants- top half of leaf. carries out photosynthesis. has a tall thin frame
in females- ovaries. be fertilised by sperm cell to create baby. it has genes. mitochondria provides energy. nucleus has half a set of genes.
in nervous system- brain and spinal column. sends into to and from brain and nervous system. has a long thin frame to send quick messages
ciliated epithelial cell
in lining of nose, trachea and bronchi in respiratory system. helps move things inside the body. has tiny hairs (cilia) to help carry things inside body
root hair cell
in plants- the root underground. absorbs water and nutrients. has long thin hair that extends from the cell and gets water and nutrients. Thin cell wall makes it easy for water to get into cell. large vacuole stores temporary water
in all muscles in body. contracts to get shorter. relaxes to get longer. has mitochondria to release energy.
in bacteria and cyanbacteria. is a small single cell not containing a nucleus
in fungi, plants and animals. is an organism that contains a nucleus and can be multicellular.
adapted to unicellular life because they reproduce quickly.
has cytoplasm chloroplast ribosomes nucleus mitochondrion cell membrane vacuole and cell wall
has ribosomes cytoplasm mitochondrion nucleus cell membrane
controls activities in cell. in animal and plant cells
where metabolic reactions controlled by enzymes take place. in plant and animal cells
where energy is released in respiration. in plants and animals
absorbs light energy to make food. in plants not animals
where protein synthesis takes place. in plants and aminals
filled with cell sap. in plants not animals
controls passage of substances in and out of cell. in plants and animals
strengthens the cell. in plants not animals
too small to see with naked eye. usually prokaryotes. bacteria viruses fungi and protoctista
free from microbes. use to avoid contamination from surroundings. agar jelly contains nutrients needed for bacteria
net movement of particles from a high concentration to a lower concentration. does not require energy
diffusion results in
equilibrium. same number of particles on each side
diffusion takes place in
gut- food molecules from villi in small intestines to blood vessels.
Lungs- oxgen from atmosphere to bloodstream
Lungs- carbon dioxide from bloodstream to atmosphere
leaf- carbon dioxide from atmosphere to leaf
factors that alter the rate of diffusion
surface area to volume ratio
steepness of concentration gradient
contain water, mineral ions and glucose
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
new cells are needed for
growth and repair of damaged cells
produce sperm and egg cells
processes of cell division
mitosis and meisos
what is mitosis
duplicating body cells
section of dna
storage place for dna
a series of evens that take place as a cell grows and divides
factors that can alter enzyme activity
substrate and enzyme concentration
what makes up tissues of living organisms
a group of identical cells that share the same function
a group of different tissues that work together to do a particular job
a group of organs that work together to achieve a purpose
can contract and conduct electrical impulses
eg heart contract involuntarily
delivers hormones to body
need to be close to capillaries because they need to contact them to deliver hormones to rest of the body
eg thyroid glands
covers whole surface of body
mode of cells closely packed together with 1 or more layers
specialised for the lining of internal and external body surfaces
a muscular tube approximately 6m long.
enzymes here digest carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
food molecules enter the bloodstream here
bile is stored here
a muscular tube connecting the pharynx (throat) with the stomach.
food moves through it by peristalsis
bile is produced here
a muscular bag where hydrochloric acid is added to food to kill bacteria.
enzymes digest proteins
food is churned up here
faeces are stored here before it leaves the body though a ring of muscle called the anus
mastication (chewing) occurs here.
saliva is added to the food containing mucus, water and the enzyme amylase
this leaf shape organ produces enzymes to digest carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
this is where water is reabsorbed from the waste
an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification (breakdown) of lipids
breaks down starch
use of product is respiration
breaks down proteins
into amino acids
to form other proteins eg enzymes
breaks down lipids (fats)
into fatty acids and glycerol
use of product is cell membranes
how bile helps digest fat
is an alkaline compound so lipase can work.
helps in the breakdown of lipids
gives larger surface area for enzyme action