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AQA AS English Langauge Theorists and Key Words - Gender
Gender AS level
Terms in this set (50)
"women's vocbulary is smaller but more fluent."
Koenraad Kuiper (pronounced Conrad Cooper)
"men use insults to express solidarity and are less likely to pay attention to the need to save face."
"women's pronunciation is closer to RP than males."
"men speak in shorter utterance and use humour to build a rapport."
Found that women's talk falls into four categories:
2. House Talk
"men are presented by what they do, women by how they look."
Zimmerman and West
Found that in same-sex talk conversations there were no interruptions or overlaps, but in mixed-sex conversations, 98% of the interruptions and 100% of the overlaps were made by men. The women were complicit in this, meaning they spoke less.
Laura Mulvey - Male Gaze
"everything that is written/soaps/films/music videos is for men and reduces women."
"the English language is systematically skewed to present women as second class citizens."
Disagreed with Zimmerman and West. He argued that interruptions and overlaps didn't show male dominance but they showed support and understanding.
Has a feminist view. She believes that women talk more than men but men's talk is viewed highly while women's talk is seen as gossip. She belives that women are expected to stay quiet in mixed-sex conversations. She belives that what people mean by 'women talk more' is that 'they talk more than they ought to.
She also jokes that only men can grow up - women remain as 'girls' until they become 'old girls', and they are socially redundant, even invisible.
Found differences in the way men and women speak:
1. women use overt prestige, men covert.
2. women use Standard English more often.
3. men drop the 'h' at the beginning of words.
4. men drop the 'g' at the end of 'ing' words.
5. men use 'ain't' more often.
6. men use 'seen' and 'done' as past tense.
7. men use more double negatives.
She belived that these differences occured because women are more status-conscious and their speech fits into their subordinate role.
In a lexicon of words, 26 for men denoted promiscuity and some had positive connotations (e.g. 'player', 'stud'). For women, 220 denoted promiscuity and none of them had positive connotations.
Found that in same-sex talk, women were more collaborative than men and aimed for more poitive politeness strategies.
Supports the difference model. She bleived that boys and girls socialise in differents groups and therefore learn different values and behaviours. However, she has been critisised for being too quick to separate boys and girls and for relying on stereotypes.
Tannen's Big 6
Status vs Support
Conflict vs Compromise
Order vs Proposals
Advice vs Support
Independence vs Intimacy
Information vs Fellings
Supports the deficit model.
1. Hypercorrect pronnunciation and grammar
6. Speaking in italics
7. Super polite forms
8. Empty adjectives
9. Avoid coarse langugae and expletives
10. Special Lexion
Defines male language as the standard, and women's language is therefore deficient, stereotypical, suggest women lack confidence.
Men are the dominant speakers in conversation, stereotypical, suggest men are more powerful.
Men and women do speak differently, but women are not measured against men.
Hypercorrect pronnunciation and grammar (example)
' I don't never use double negatives, ain't that right?'
We'll often raise the pitch of our voice at the end of statements, because, again, we're unceratain.
Tag Questions (example)
' I desperatley need you to approve of my utterances, don't I?'
We sort of lack authority and we're kind of uncertain.
Suggesting, rather than coming straight out and saying what we mean.
e.g. 'When did you last have a shower?'
Speaking in italics (example)
We use exaggerated intonation to show we're very unceratin about most things.
Super Polite Forms (example)
' If you don't mind, please may you...'
Empty adjectives (example)
' You're looking lovely tofay, what a nice dress.'
If men use these then they don't look manly.
Avois Coarse Langauge and Expletives (example)
' Oh sugar!'
Special Lexicon (example)
Trivial words, but they make us feel important.
The John Phenomenon
There are more men called John leading FTSE firms than women.
Existing state of affairs, always attempted to be maintained.
A society controlled and dominated by men.
Women are lower than men.
Promotes male dominance and ideology.
A set of beliefs and ideals.
The most common/accepted set of beliefs.
Goes against the 'norm'.
Made to look male.
Set of norms based on the expectations of heterosexuality.
Something that is accepted.
Words that used to differentiated by sex alone, but over time have gained connotations of status or value. Afford women less prestige than men.
e.g. bachelor vs spinster
"women ask more questions and do the emotional work of the conversation."
Gender is made clear. e.g. policeman.
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