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GEOGRAPHY REVISON 2018
Terms in this set (70)
What is migration?
Migration is the act of people moving from one place to another
Why do people migrate?
Push factors-lack of food, poor education, war, expensive housing, unemployment
Pull factors- Jobs available, better schools, better hospitals, improved living standards, good food supply, cheap housing
the movement of people from within a small area
Urban to rural migration
The movement of people from a city to the countryside
The movement of people from one part of a country to another
The movement of people from one country to another
Short term migration
The movement of people for as long as a day or a few months
Long term migration
The movement of people for as long as many years
rural to urban migration
The movement of people from the countryside to the city
People moving through choice
The movement of people who are forced to move to a different place or country
Examples of countries that immigrants migrated to
Germany Serbia Hungary
Reasons-they thought they would get a better living in this places they were welcoming to anyone who needed to come.
Main causes of the Syrian crisis
What are the role of ISIS?
ISIS are scaring people by killing people every single day e.g. they carry out public executions. They are ruining monuments and homes in Syria, making outbreak of war and causing many to leave their homes.
What is the difference between a natural event and natural hazard?
A natural hazard occurs when humans interact with natural events and end up with people in danger
Name at least 7 types of natural hazards
How are humans the cause of these natural hazards?
Humans such as skiers and snowboarders can cause avalanches to occur as they are bringing the snow down when they ski down a hill.
Also, if population increases, more people will get compacted into one country meaning there would be a loss of water, resulting in a drought.
Tectonic hazards and examples
relates to the earth's crust and core
examples: Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions
Atmospheric hazards and example
Weather related hazards
examples: hurricanes, drought, typhoons, cyclones
Geomorphological hazards and examples
hazards occurring on the earth's surface
examples: Flooding, landslides, avalanches
hazards relating to diseases
examples: Forest fires, ebola, maleria
Constructive plate margin
A boundary between two plates that are moving apart and where new crust is being formed
Gently sloping sea floor on the edges of coastal regions
Destructive plate margin
A boundary between two plates that are moving together and where one, consisting of oceanic crust, is forced downwards and destroyed.
Short term assistance following a disaster such as an earthquake. This might involve food, water, medicines and shelter.
The point on the ground surface immediately above the focus of an earthquake.
A crack in a section of solid rock along which one side has moved in relation to the other.
Mountain ranges that are formed when two of the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust push together at their boundary. The extreme pressure forces the edges of the plates upwards into a series of folds.
Rock material emitted from a volcano
Molten rock and gases formed deep underground.
Large 'slabs' of the Earth's crust up to 100km thick.
How does convection make tectonics move?
The earth's crust is broken up into pieces called plates. When heat rises and it falls into the mantle, it creates a convection current which then moves the plates. Where convection currents diverge near the earth's crust, they move apart but when they converge, they move towards eachother.
The theory that the surface of the earth is divided into a series of plates, consisting of oceanic and continental crust.
The edge of two or more plates which may be moving towards each other, away from each other or alongside each other
The scale used to measure the magnitude (strength) of an earthquake
Short term responses
Immediate responses to a disaster e.g. search and rescue, medical help
One or more large waves caused by an earthquake and volcanic eruption that can result in tremendous destruction of coastal communities.
Structure of earth
Conservative plate boundary
Plate boundary whereby the plates are moving alongside each other
Where is L'Aquila?
L'Aquila is located in the centre of Italy in the continent, Europe. Cities that surround it are Rome and Naples.
Magnitude of L'aquila
Date of L'Aquila
6th April 2009
Impacts of L'Aquila (SOCIAL)
290 deaths...thousands of people made homeless (secondary) ...University buildings collapsed (primary)
Impacts of L'Aquila (environmental)
Hospitals damaged (secondary)...Thousands of historical buildings e.g. churches, and monuments destroyed (Primary)... Bridges collapsed and water pipe burst (Primary)
Impacts of L'Aquila (Economic)
$11,434 damage caused...House prices and rents increased (secondary)
L'Aquila responses (Immediate)
Camps set up by international agencies to house the homeless
Mortgages and bills were suspended. The Italian post office offered free mobile calls and offered free delivery.
L'Aquila responses (Long term)
Torch-lit procession to remember the earthquake on the anniversary of the quake
Resident did not have to tax during 2010. Students were given public transport and were exempt from university fees.
House took several years to rebuild and historic centres are expected to take much longer.
Where is Gorkha?
Gorka is in Nepal. Nepal is a country located in South-East Asia. Countries that surround it include, India, China and Tibet. The earthquake started is Barpak which is quite close to the Himalayas.
Impacts of Gorkha (ECONOMIC)
Tourism income fell (secondary)... 300,000 people left two weeks after the Earthquake
Environmental: Historic buildings and temples in Kathmandu ruined e.g. Dharahara tower (primary)...
Destruction of 26 hospitals and 50% of schools (primary)
Impacts of Gorkha (Environmental)
Historic buildings and temples in Kathmandu ruined e.g. Dharahara tower (primary)...
Destruction of 26 hospitals and 50% of schools (primary)
Gorkha responses (immediate)
The UK raised US$126 million by September to provide emergency aid and start rebuilding the worst hit areas... Temporary shelters were set up. The Red cross provided tents for 225,000 people...
Facebook launched safety feature so people could indicate they were safe
Gorkha responses (long term)
Nepal's government carried out Post-disaster needs assessment. 23 areas were required rebuilding. e.g. houses, schools, roads, monuments etc... After 8 months, OCHA reported that US$274 million of aid had been committed to recovery affairs... Mount Everest reopened in August
Why do people live near tectonic hazards?
Geothermal- People can get easy access to geothermal energy. This means that people will get efficiently from a renewable resource that will not emit CO2 and will reduce greenhouse gases.
Farming- People live near tectonic hazards because of farming and it is their job and passion.
Tourism- People live near tectonic hazards because people like to visit volcanoes because of the unique atmosphere.
Management of earthquakes
1.) Deep foundations into solid rock
2.) Cross bracing to provide extra support to the frame
3.) Weights on the roof to counterbalance shaking
4.) Several emergency staircases and exits to speed up evacuations
5.) Shock absorbers in foundations to absorb seismic waves
6.) Roof covering the area immediately outside the building to prevent pedestrians being showered with broken glass
Theory of plate tectonics
Plate tectonics is the theory that the earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that float around the mantle and molten rock underneath. Over millions of years the continents have drifted into new positions because the plates have moved.
What is a megacity?
The world's largest cities with a population of over 10 million people. Developing countries have the most megacities as they have a higher rate of urban migration, a larger (and still rapidly growing) population and there are usually fewer cities for people to move to, so they congregate in a smaller number of larger cities.
What is urbanisation?
The increasing amount of people that live in urban (city) areas. Over half the world's population live in cities.
By 2030, it is expected that 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas and by 2050 it will be 70%
Rates of Urbanisation
These differ between continents. The highest rates of urbanisation are in low income countries such as in Asia and Africa
The population of the cities is young, so the natural increase will be high.
The lowest rates of urbanisation are in high income countries . Urbanisation has slowed down because the majority population live in cities so the rate of natural increase has slowed down.
Rates in 2014
54% of the world's population lived in cities in 2014
What is natural increase?
Natural increase is if the birth rate increases to more than the death rate
Birth rates may increase over-time as it may be difficult for people to have access to contraception
Death rates may have decreased overtime due to more medicines and more professional doctors to treat people and help them survive
Where is Lagos?
Lagos is located in Nigeria in the continent, Africa. It is just above the equator therefore, making it in the northern hemisphere in the south-west of Nigeria. Countries that surround it include Chad, Cameroon and Benin
Historically, cities have grown on rivers, coasts and other busy transport routes where trade can thrive. Even today, many of the world's megacities are ports, which are a good location for trade
Cites that trade are also good place for business, so they grow economically. Its economic growth creates jobs, which attract people and it is people who bring the ideas to the enterprise on which cities thrive
Location of Lagos
Lagos is a city located in Nigeria in the continent, Africa. It is just above the equator therefore, it is in the Northern Hemisphere in the South-West of Nigeria. Some neighboring countries/places are Benin, Chad and Cameroon
What is the importance of Lagos?
In 1991, the Nigerian government moved to Abuja, which became the new capital of Nigeria, though Lagos retained the importance as the country's centre of trade and commerce. About 80% of Nigeria's industry is based in and around Lagos and it is now the main financial centre in West Africa. The city also has a major airport and busy seaport. The population in Lagos continues to grow
What are formal jobs?
Jobs with regular wages and are recognised as income sources on which income taxes must be paid
e.g. doctor, shop owner etc
What are informal jobs?
Jobs that are not taxed or monitored by any form of the government
e.g. street-sellers, shoe-shiners, waste recycling
50% of jobs in informal sector
What is GDP?
Gross Domestic Product-
The total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year
In Lagos, it is £18 billion per year and contributes 30% to the country's GDP
Social and economic opportunities in Lagos
Life expectancy- improved immensely over the years. This is because wealth and income has increased, making it a financially stable city. They are able to build more hospitals and schools, allowing people lives to be saved
Health care- although it's not free, health care is available in Lagos. The nearest hospital is closer than if you live in a village, though you might have to queue
Inequality in Lagos
Victoria Island- housing for the rich where it's close to the city centre
Makoko-slum area where people earn just under $2 a day
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