GCSE 9-1 English Language Terminology

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Adjective
a word added to a noun to describe it or change its meaning
Adverb
a word used with a verb, adjective or another adverb to describe how, when or where something has happened
Adverbial
a word or phrase that is used as an adverb and helps to link ideas together. A fronted adverbial is used at the start of a sentence and followed by a comma
Alliteration
the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of a group of words for special effect
Anaphora
the use of a short word to refer back to a word or phrase used earlier
Anecdote
a short entertaining story about a real person or event
Atmosphere
a feeling or tone conveyed by something
Balanced sentence
a sentence where the two halves are parallel or balanced in structure. If the two halves are in contrast, it is called antithesis
Bias
an opinion or feeling that strongly favours one side in preference to another
Chronologically
arranged in the order in which things occured
Clause
part of a sentence with its own verb
Cliche
a phrase or idea that is used so often that it has little meaning
Cohesive devices
words or phrases which link paragraphs together an link points within paragraphs
Colloquial language
informal language used in everyday situations
Command
an instruction, usually written in the imperative with the verb as the first word in the sentence
Conjunction
word that links words, phrases and clauses
Connective
a word that joins words or phrases or sentences
Connotation
something implied or suggested in addition to the main meaning
Context
the circumstances or background in which something happens
Contrast
a difference clearly seen when things are compared or seen together
Coordinating conjunction
a word that is used to join two single clauses or equal importance together
Descriptive detail
the inclusion of specific details to add the vividness of the description
Diacope
repetition of a word or phrase broken up by one or more intervening words
Dialogue
the words spoken by characters in a play, film, or story
Direct speech
when the words a person has spoken are relayed to the reader exactly, using speech marks
Discourse marker
words and phrases used in written or spoken communication to connect or signpost information and ideas
Emotive language
words and phrases used to arouse a reader's emotions
Empathizing
to understand and share in someone else's feelings, to feel empathy
Exclamation
expresses surprise, shock or amusement and is marked by an exclamation mark. Exclamations do not always have a subject or verb
Explicit
stating something openly and exactly
Extended metaphor
a metaphor which is continues through a series of lines or sentences in a text
Figurative language
techniques such as simile, metaphor, personification and onomatopoeia which use words for the effects they create, rather than their literal meanings
First-person narration
when the story is told from the point of view of the narrator
Flashback
a scene in a story or film that is set earlier in time than the main part of the story
Foreshadow
to be a sign of something that is likely to happen
Frame narrative
a literary technique presenting a story within a story
Genre
a particular kind of style or literature
Hyperbole
a deliberately exaggerated statement that is not meant to be taken litrally
Ideas
the information, experiences, opinions or arguments in a text
Imagery
the use of figurative or other special language to convey an idea to readers or hearers
Imperative
expressing a command
Implicit
implied but not stated openly
Independent clause
a part of a sentence that can be used as a complete sentence
Inference
something that you infer; a conclusion reached by reasoning
Informal language
language used in everyday speech
Interior monologue
a piece of writing that represents the thoughts of a character
Interpret
to explain the meaning of something said or written
Inverted sentence
where the normal word order of a sentence is changed for emphasis
Ironic
where the intended meaning differs from the expected one
Irony
the use of words that mean the opposite of what you really intend, done either for emphasis or for humour
Juxtaposition
putting things side by side or close together
Lexical field
words used in a text which have an element or shared meaning
Metaphor
the use of a word or phrase in a special meaning that provides an image
Minor sentence
a sentence which isn't complete but which makes sense as a unit of meaning in context
Motif
a distinctive theme in a literary work or piece of music
Narrator
the person or character who recounts the event of a story
Narrative hook
a literary technique used in the opening of a story to engage readers so that they will keep reading
Narrative viewpoint
the perspective a story is narrated from, e.g. first person, third person, omniscient
Narrative voice
the personality or character of the narrator as it is revealed through dialogue or descriptive and narrative commentary
Noun
a word used to name a person, place or thing
Omniscient
knowing everything
Onomatopoeia
words which imitate the sound they represent
Pathetic fallacy
giving human feelings to inanimate express contempt or disapproval
Past tense
verb forms used to describe something that happened earlier
Pejorative language
words and phrases that express contempt or disapproval
Personal pronoun
each of the pronouns that indicate person, gender, number and case
Personification
representing an idea in human form or a thing as having human characteristics
Polyptoton
repetition of words of the same root with different endings, e.g. strong & strength
Propaganda
biased or misleading publicity that is intended to promote a political point of view
Purpose
something that you intend to do or achieve, an intended result
Recount
to give an account of something
Reference chains
different words or phrases used for the same idea, person or thing many times in a piece of writing, like links in a chain
Repetition
repeating, or being repeated
Reported speech
a speaker's words as reported by another person and put into the tense of the reporting verb
Rhetorical question
a question asked for dramatic effect and not intended to get an answer
Rule of three
(AKA tricolon) linking three points or features, e.g. adjectives for impact
Setting
the way or place in which something it set
Sibilance
a literary device where strong stressed consonants create a hissing sound
Simile
where one thing is compared to another thing, using a connective word
Stereotype
an over-simplified image or idea of a type of person or thing that has become fixed through being widely held
Stream of consciousness
a narrative mode that attempts to reflect the narrator's thought processes
Symbol
a thing thought of as representing or standing for something else
Symbolism
the use of symbols to represent things
Theme
the subject about which a person speaks, writes, or thinks
Tone
a manner of expression in speaking or writing
Viewpoint
an opinion or point of view
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