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Medicine in Britain(1-15)
Terms in this set (93)
What was dominant in medieval society?
The Christian Church
What ideas were common in medieval society?
What did the Church teach people?
That God made them ill because he was either displeased with them or was testing their faith
What was astrology used for in the medieval period?
To help diagnose what was wrong with a patient
When did the use of astrology increase?
It increased through the medieval period especially after the Black Death when the Church became more accepting
What was the thought of astrology?
The alignment of planets and stars was thought to cause diseases
What did the Church set up and ran?
Universities where physicians trained
What did the Church discouraged?
Dissection and in general they did not approve of people challenging ideas and authority
Who could mostly read in the medieval period?
Monks and priests
How did the Church control in what books were read?
Most large collections of books were in monasteries
What did the Church approved of?
Traditional, rational explanations for disease
Why did the Church promoted the ideas of Galen?
His theories fitted Christian beliefs that the body had a soul and that all parts had been created by God to work together
What were many hospitals housed in?
Monasteries and nunneries
What was the four humours?
Ancient Greeks thought everyone had a mix of four humours in their body
What did the Greeks believe happened to your four humours when you were ill?
They believed that people became ill when their four humours were unbalanced so they tried to balance the four humours out
Who developed the four humours?
What was the developed idea of the four humours?
Galen based his treatment on his Theory of Opposites which aimed to balance the humours by giving the patient the opposite of their symptoms
Who was Galen?
He was a Greek doctor who worked in Ancient Rome
What did Galen do?
He wrote many books, he developed Hippocrates' ideas and he drew detailed diagrams of human anatomy using knowledge he gained from operating wounded gladiators and carrying out dissections on dead bodies (mostly animal)
Who was Hippocrates?
He was an Ancient Greek doctor
What did Hippocrates do?
He dismissed the idea that gods caused disease and most of his treatments were based on diet, exercise and rest but he also used bloodletting and purging to get rid of excess humours and he wrote the Hippocratic Oath where doctors swore to respect life and prevent harm
What was Hippocrates method of clinical observation?
Studying symptoms, making notes, comparing with similar cases then diagnosing and treating
What was miasma?
The idea that bad air was the cause of disease
What was prevention and treatment of disease in the medieval period based on?
Rational and religious methods as well as traditional remedies
What was bloodletting?
Was the most common treatment for an imbalance of humours and it was done by cutting a vein using leeches or by cupping
What was purging?
It was another treatment used to re balance the humours and it either involved making thee patient vomit or go to the toilet to remove food from the body
What were the religious and supernatural methods done to prevent illness in the middle ages?
Chanting incantations, carrying lucky charms or amulets, flagellation and living a Christian life
What were the rational methods done to prevent illness in the middle ages?
Bathing and washing, exercising, not overeating, bleeding and purging, purifying the air and trying to keep the streets clean
What were the traditional remedies in the middle ages?
Using traditional herbs which were drunk, sniffed or bathed in and it included different foods to re balance the humours and ointments were applied to the skin
How could you access traditional remedies in the medieval period?
By going to an apothecary or it was made at home
What were the religious treatments in the middle ages?
Praying, fasting, going on a pilgrimage and paying for a special Mass to be said
What were the supernatural treatments in the middle ages?
Hanging a magpie's beak around your neck to cure toothache
What were barber surgeons?
They carried out bloodletting, pulling teeth, lancing boils and cutting hair with no training. They did basic surgery such as amputating limbs and they cost less than a physician
What were apothecaries?
They received training but no medical qualifications, they mixed medicines and ointments based on their own knowledge or directions of a physician and it cost money but less than a physician
What were physicians?
They were medically trained in universities and passed exams, they diagnosed illnesses and gave treatments or sent patients to the apothecary or barber-surgeon, they were expensive so they were mainly used by the wealthy
What was the idea of 'care in the home'?
Most ill people were treated by a female family member and the wise woman of the village would also tend to people in their homes for free
What did physicians do?
They observed a patient's symptoms and checked their pulse, skin colour and urine, they consulted urine charts in their vademecum and they then consulted zodiac charts to help diagnose the illness and to work out the best time to treat the patient and then they either treated the patient themselves or sent them to a barber surgeon or apothecary
What were the hospitals like in the medieval period?
Hospitals were places where travellers and pilgrims stayed on their journeys, people with infectious diseases or incurable diseases were not admitted, patients and their surroundings were kept very clean, some hospitals were built for specific infectious diseases, many were run by the Church, patients were given fresh food and plenty of rest
When did the Black Death reached Britain?
What was the Black Death?
Many historians thought the disease was bubonic plague which were carried by fleas living on black rats which brought the disease to different countries on trading ships- bubonic plague is passed to humans when an infected flea bites them and the disease enters the blood
How did people thought the Black Death was caused by religiously?
They thought that God sent the plague as a punishment for people's sins
How did people think that the astrology was the cause of Black Death?
The position of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn was unusual at this time
How did people think that miasma was the cause of Black Death?
They believed that bad air or smells caused it from decaying rubbish
How did people think that volcanoes was the cause of Black Death?
They believed that poisonous gases from European volcanoes and earthquakes carried in the air
How did people think that the four humours was the cause of the Black Death?
Most physicians believed that disease was caused by an imbalance in the Four Humours
How did people think that outsiders was the cause of Black Death?
They thought that strangers and witches had caused the disease
What was the religious way of people trying to avoid the Black Death?
They prayed and fasted as they believed that God had sent the disease and it meant sense to show God how sorry they were by punishing themselves
How did people try to avoid catching the Black Death?
They cleared up the rubbish in the streets, lighting a fire in their room, ringing bells or having birds flying around the room to keep air moving, carrying herbs and spices to avoid breathing in the bad air and not letting unknown people enter the town or the village
What were the symptoms of Black Death?
Swelling of the lymph glands into large lumps filled with pus ( known as buboes), fever and chills, headache, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain
What were the treatments for the Black Death?
It included praying and holding lucky charms, cutting open buboes to drain the pus, holding bread against the buboes, then burying it in the ground and eating cool things and taking cold baths
What does renaissance mean?
It means rebirth and this period in European History saw a rebirth of old ideas from Ancient Greece and Rome
What were the changes in ideas on causes of disease in the renaissance period?
Gradually, fewer people believed in supernatural or religious causes of disease and various new rational explanations for disease were suggested
What was the continuity in ideas on cause of disease in the Renaissance period?
Theory of miasma and the theory of the four humours
What was the changing influence of the Church in the renaissance period?
New religious ideas challenged the authority of the Catholic Church making it more difficult for the Catholic Church to promote its ideas about science
What were the changes in the work of physicians and scientists in the renaissance period?
As fewer people believed that astrology caused disease physicians stopped using astrology charts for diagnosis and timing treatment and due to improve knowledge of digestion, physicians realised that urine was not a good indicator of disease and stopped using urine charts to diagnose and physicians carried out more direct observations and examinations of their patients rather than relying on the patient explaining their symptoms
Who was Thomas Sydenham?
He worked as a doctor in London during the 1660s and 70s
What was Thomas Sydenham book called and what was it about?
His book was called Observationes Meidcae(1676) and it outlined his theories and observations
What did Thomas Sydenham do?
He didn't rely on medical books when making a diagnosis, but observed patients and recorded symptoms in detail, he also believed that a disease had nothing to do with the nature of the person who had it and he based treatment on the disease as a whole and didn't treat individual symptoms
What was one of the major changes in the Renaissance period?
Communication and transmission of medical ideas
When was the printing press invented and around what time?
It was invented by Gutenberg around 1440
What happened by the start of the Renaissance in 1500?
There were hundreds of printing presses across Europe
What did printing press meant?
That many exact copies of texts could be produced in a short amount of time
What did the printing press help reduced?
The Church's control of ideas as it could no longer prevent the publication of ideas it did not approve of
What did the Royal Society aim to do?
Further scientific understanding by carrying out and recording the results of experiments, sharing scientific knowledge and encouraging new theories and ideas.
What did the Royal Society sponsored?
Scientists to enable them to carry out research
What did the Royal Society do from 1665?
Published a journal called Philosophical Transactions in which scientists could share their work and ideas and it meant that doctors and scientists could study, challenge and build on each other's research
In the way of the Royal Society
What happened in hospitals in the renaissance period?
They were treating more sick people and being used less by travellers and pilgrims, most had their own apothecary to mix medicines and physicians would frequently visit their patients, some charity funded hospitals were set up, more pest houses began to appear for people with contagious diseases
What were the continued treatments and preventions in the renaissance period?
Traditional herbal remedies, bleeding and purging, cleanliness, superstitions ad prayer and healthy living
What were the changes in prevention and treatments in the Renaissance period?
There was more emphasis on removing miasma through draining swamps and removing sewage and rubbish, people regularly changed their clothes to keep clean rather than bathing, new herbal remedies from newly discovered countries appeared in England and some were effective, theory of transference led people to try and rub objects on themselves to transfer the disease to the object and alchemy caused chemical cures using metals or minerals to become popular
Why was the lack of change in the Renaissance period?
The ideas were slow to be accepted, they had no direct use in improving treatment or preventing disease and their discoveries did not improve understanding of the cause of disease
What was the continuity of apothecaries and surgeons in the Renaissance period?
They were still not given university training and were still considered inferior to physicians and cheaper
What was the continuity of physicians in the Renaissance period?
They were stilled trained at universities and the training lasted for many years and training was still based on learning from textbook rather than practical experience
What was the changes of apothecaries and surgeons in the Renaissance period?
They were both trained through being in guild systems when they were apprentices, then journeymen before becoming masters and a licence was needed to work as an apothecary or surgeon and these were only issued after completing training
What were the changes of physicians in the Renaissance period?
There was better access to a wider variety of medical books and detailed drawings due to the printing press, new ideas and causes of disease inspired some physicians to become more practical and experimental and dissection was legalised but took time to become commonplace
Who was Andreas Vesalius?
He carried out a large number of dissections on human bodies and many discoveries on how the body worked
What was the importance of Vesalius?
He improved understanding of the human body, he made the study of anatomy fashionable, he proved that Galen's work was incorrect which helped others to question Galen's theories, he encouraged and inspired other medical professionals to carry out dissections and make further discoveries and his work was widely published in England and throughout Europe and included detailed illustrations of the human body which were copied into other medical textbooks
When was the Great Plague?
What were the treatments for the Great Plague?
It was mostly the same for the Black Death , there was the theory of transference and it was thought that people could sweat the disease out
What did the government do regarding to the Great Plahue?
Theatres were closed and large gatherings were banned, dogs and cats were killed, streets were regularly cleaned, barrels of tar were burned in the streets, every day, carts collected the dead who were then buried in deep mass graves, a household was boarded into its home for 28 days or taken to the pest house if a member caught the plague and days of fasting and public prayers were ordered
What did plague doctors do to prevent getting the plague?
They wore costumes to prevent them catching the disease and the masks included sweet smelling herbs to ward off miasma and the cloak was waxed so that nothing from the patient could be absorbed into it
Who was William Harvey?
He was a doctor
What did William Harvey do?
Carried out public dissections, taught the importance of doctors observing and recording patient's symptoms, rather than relying on textbooks for diagnosis and treatment and he discovered the process of blood circulation
What was the importance of Harvey?
He proved that some of Galen's theories were wrong, bringing into question Galen's other theories , he improved knowledge about how the body worked and passed this knowledge on, his work gained publicity and credibility since he was a royal physician and his discoveries left many unanswered questions which encouraged further experiments
When did microscopes develop?
What happened in 1861?
Louis Pasteur published his Germ Theory
What did Louis Pasteur prove?
That microbes in the air cause decay and he theorised that germs also caused disease but was unable to prove this
Who was Robert Koch?
A German doctor and scientist
What did Robert Koch prove?
That Pasteur's theory was right and that microbes caused disease as well as decay and he identified specific microbes that caused TB
Why did Louis Pasteur have little influence on people?
He was not a doctor and his work focused on food and drink not disease
Who was Florence Nightingale?
She was a nurse
What was Florence Nightingale asked to do?
Lead a team of nurses at the military hospital in Scutari during the Crimean War
What did Florence Nightingale believe in?
That miasma caused disease so she emphaised hygiene, fresh air, good supplies and training for nurses
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