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Product Design A-Level
Terms in this set (84)
What are the 6 R's
What does Reduce mean?
This could mean for example less:
- material used to make a product.
- Waste materials caused by the
manufacture of a product.
What does Reuse mean?
Products that are designed to be reused resulting in less waste which leads to conversation of materials and resources.
What does Recycling mean?
This is the conversation of waste products into new materials, to extend the life and usefulness of a products that seems to have no more purpose or use.
What does Refuse mean?
This means that you can say that you don't want it. This might be because:
- Toxic chemicals have been used in the making of the product.
- The manufacturing processes do not conform to safety regulations.
What does Repair mean?
To mend something.
What does Rethink mean?
It means to look at a design problem in a different way
What is an example of a company who is thinking of the 6 R's?
How are Tesco thinking about the 6 R's?
They are asking their customers to refuse the standard carrier bag and instead rethink about how they carry their shopping. Instead they offer bags for life. The customer can buy a thick carrier bag which can be reused. If the bag breaks they can exchange for a new one, the old one will then be recycled.
Define Planned Obsolescence?
This occurs when something is intended to wear out or stop being useful after a predetermined period of time - and that time is often as short as a few years.
This is a way of thinking that supports responsible designing and making that does not have a negative impact on the environment.
What is Carbon footprint?
A measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide.
What contributes to product miles?
Source material to primary processor
Material to factory
Product to distributor
Distributor to retail outlet
Retail outlet to home
What is the Packaging Material Life cycle?
The process that describes how packaging materials are created, manufactured, used and disposed of, recycled or re-used. Each stage has potential economic, social and environmental costs and benefits.
What is Stage 1 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Designing .The designer creates a plan for packaging that meets the functional requirements like cost and durability, as well as sustainable design principles or criteria.
What is Stage 2 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Extracting.The raw materials are harvested from renewable sources like forests, or mined from the earth, in the case of metals or oil-based plastics.
What is Stage 3 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Manufacturing.Machinery, energy and water are typically involved in the processes that turn raw materials like wood, aluminium and oil into packaging materials like paper, tin and plastic; and then turn these materials into boxes, bottles, bags and other forms of packaging.
What is Stage 4 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Filling.Both machines and human labour are involved in placing products in primary packaging, placing primary packages in secondary packaging and stacking and securing secondary packaging on transit pallets.
What is Stage 5 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Distributing. When the products are packaged, they are moved into warehouses for storage and/or transported to the customer for use or retail. Some products require controlled storage environments, like refrigeration.
What is Stage 6 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Retailing. Most packaged products are sold through retailers. Products may have special storage and display requirements, like refrigeration, and may have a limited shelf life.
What is Stage 7 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Using.Once purchased by a consumer, packaging may provide short- or long-term storage for the product. It may feature directions for product use and package recycling.
What is Stage 8 out of 8 for the Packaging Material Life cycle?
Disposing.When the packaging is no longer needed, it can be re-used, recycled, sent to landfill or incinerated for energy recovery.
What are the social issues linked to sustainability?
What is Eco-Labelling?
It is a wide range of voluntary environmental certifications given to companies/ products that are seen to meet specific environmental targets set for a product category.
What is COSHH?
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health. It says how any substance which could present a health and safety risk must be properly labelled.
What is IP?
A novel, physical creation that is entitled to protection for it's originator in the form of Copyright , design rights, patent, registered design or trademark.
What is Copyright?
Unregistered rights that original works such as books.
What is a trademark?
A unique combination of words, sounds, colours and logos used for marketing, and the legal protection of the brand identity.
What is IPO?
This is the official UK Government body responsible for IP.
What are Intellectual Property Rights(IPR)?
These are important aspect of product design, manufacturing and marketing because they provide protection against the theft of ideas and other commercially valuable aspects.
What are Patents?
These are legal protections for inventions relating to the way in which the products function.
What is Open Design?
This is a type of design that has not been protected by IPR, so that it can freely used and developed by others.
What do Trademarks have to be?
They have to be registered with the IPO and provide legal protection for the words, logos and other elements employed in the marketing and brand identity of products and companies.
What are Unregistered design rights?
These are rights that give automatic protection to prevent copying the appearance of a product.
What is QA(Quality Assurance)?
This is the procedures and policies put in place to reduce waste and ensure manufactured products are produced accurately within set tolerances.
What is QC(Quality Control)?
This is the monitoring, checking and testing of materials, components, equipment and production throughout production to ensure they conform to acceptable tolerances.
What is TQM(Total Quality management)?
This is a project management system focusing on QA through the full involvement of the workforce in continual improvement.
What is CPA(Critical Path Analysis)?
This is a project management method used to analyse all individual stages within a project and plan the effective and time efficient completion of each element within the desired schedule.
What is BSI?
This is a national organisation formed to devise agreed standard procedures for performing a wide range of tasks?
What is ISO?
This is a federation of national standards institutions that devise international standards to improve safety, productivity and reliability.
What are the 4 key ISOs?
BS EN ISO 9001(Quality management)
BS EN ISO 14000(Environmental management)
BS EN ISO 50001(energy management)
BS EN ISO 31000(Risk management)
What is the Lion Mark?
This was introduced by The British Toy & Hobby Association (BTHA) in 1989 to promote high safety standards throughout the toy industry, the bright red and yellow 'Lion Mark' is an easily recognisable icon to help consumers identify toys that have been classified as being safe for children to use.
What is the CE mark?
this is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in, or designed to be sold in, the EEA.
What is RoHS?
This a directive aimed at preventing hazardous substances from entering the production process in order to prevent damage to human health and the environment.
What is WEEE directive?
This is a mandatory European directive that covers the end of life of electric and electronic equipment.
What is the EU Energy star program?
This is was developed from an agreement between the EU and US to standardise how IT equipment was labelled to show the energy used
What are hardwoods?
These are produced from broadleaved trees, with enclosed seeds. Often grown in warmer climates such as Africa and South America and they take about 100 years to reach maturity.
What are the properties of Hardwoods?
Strong and decorative because of close grain.
Expensive and therefore used for high quality products.
Examples: beech, elm, oak, ash, mahogany
What are softwoods?
These are produced from trees with needle like leaves, with cones. Often grown in colder climates such as Scandinavia and North America and they take about 30 years to reach maturity
What are the properties of Softwoods
Usually softer and lighter because of wider grain
Cheaper and therefore used for interior construction and floorboards
Parana Pine, Scots Pine, spruce
What are Ferrous metals?
These are metals which contain Iron. An example is Steel. A compound made up of carbon and Iron.
What are Non-ferrous metals?
Metals which don't contain iron and an example is Copper
What are Alloys?
Two (or more) metals are combined to produce materials with enhanced properties.
What are the benefits of Alloys?
They change the colour, strength, hardness, ductility, resistance etc properties.
What are Thermoplastics?
plastics that can be softened by heat. They can be formed and re-formed again and again
What are 7 common thermoplastics?
PET/PETE (Polyethylene terephthalate)
HDPE (High-density polyethylene)
PVC (Polyvinyl chloride)
LDPE (Low-density polyethylene)
Acrylic (Polymethyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
What are Thermo-setting plastics?
plastics that can be formed once. They cannot be melted and formed again. Thermosetting plastics are good for making products that need to be heat resistant
What are 5 examples of Thermosetting Plastics?
What are Regenerated materials or Manufactured boards?
These are produced from trees, often making use of the waste from timber production or collected waste.
Made either from particles or laminated layers of wood.
What are 3 examples of Manufactured boards?
What are Composites?
These are formed by combining a reinforcing material such as wood pulp, and a bonding agent, such as glue. The wood pulp is made from the waste from cutting solid wood. MDF and GRP are examples of composite materials.
What is Injection moulding?
The most widespread and versatile process for producing moulded plastic products.
How does Injection Moulding work?
Granules are placed in a hopper and heated to a plastic state.
A rotating screw mechanism forces the plastic into the mould.
Ejector pins pop the product from the open mould.
What is Metal Casting?
This is the process of melting metals and pouring the molten metal into a mould.
This is also known as spin forming or spinning or metal turning most commonly, is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part. Spinning can be performed by hand or by a CNC lathe.
What are the benefits of CAD and CAM?
Easier data storage and retrieval
Reduce labour costs
Full automation capability
What are the drawbacks of CAD and CAM?
Security of data
Risk of data corruption
Initial investment - plant and training
Don't refer to job losses
What is Extrusion blow moulding?
A hollow length of plastic called a parison is formed by extrusion.
The extrusion is lowered into an open two part mould.
The mould is closed, which seals the bottom of the parison.
Air is blown into the parison, forcing it against the sides of the mould.
What is Stretch blow moulding?
A hollow preform is made using injection moulding.
The threaded top of the bottle is moulded into the preform.
The preform is reheated and positioned inside a mould.
Air is forced into the preform, shaping it to the mould.
What is Vacuum forming?
A former is placed in the vacuum chamber.
Sheet plastic is clamped in place and heated from above.
The heat is removed and air is pumped out of the vacuum chamber.
The plastic is sucked down over the mould.
What is Rotation Moulding?
first the plastic is placed into the mould.
Next the mould is heated.
The Mould then rotates to cool down.
Then finally the object is taken out of the mould.
What is Compression moulding?
A charge or slug of thermosetting plastic is placed in the lower half of a split mould. The mould is heated and the top part is squashed down onto the plastic, forcing it to take on the shape of the mould.
What are dieter Rams principles of good design?
1. Good design is innovative
2. Good design makes a product useful.
3.Good design is aesthetic
4. Good design makes a product understandable.
5. Good design is unobtrusive
6. Good design is honest
7. Good design is long-lasting
8. Good design is thorough down to the last detail.
9. Good design is environmentally-friendly
10 Good design is as little design as possible.
What is product development?
The creation of products with new or different characteristics that offer new or additional benefits to the customer. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer want or market niche.
What were the main points of the Art and Crafts movement?
Quality craftsmanship led by William Morris.
Inspired by nature, often very decorative.
Quality materials were used.
Only really available for the wealthy.
When did Arts and Crafts come into fame?
Late 19th Century - Early 20th Century.
When was Art Deco created?
1920s to 1930s
What is the Art Deco movement?
A popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939, affecting architecture, interior design, and industrial design, graphic arts, and film. Art Deco was purely decorative, this style was seen as elegant, functional, modern, with a strong use of geometric shapes.
What are 4 main points for Art Deco?
Began with an exhibition of products in Paris in 1925.
Typically involved the use of geometric shapes and the influences from the Egyptian tomb of Tutankhamen.
Often regarded as a very glamorous period of design.
Ceramicist Claris Cliff is a famous designer from that period
What is Modernism?
As Art Nouveau was beginning to peak so we saw the rise in the industrialised designs which are typical of this movement. Charles Rennie Mackintosh began to use geometric shapes which were easier to mass produce.
When was the Memphis Group Created?
In the 1980s
What is Memphis?
The Memphis group was comprised of Italian designers and architects who created a series of highly influential products in the 1980s. They disagreed with the approach of the time and challenged the idea that products had to follow conventional shapes, colours, textures and patterns.
What is Product Testing?
also called consumer testing or comparative testing, is a process of measuring the properties or performance of products. The theory is that since the advent of mass production manufacturers produce branded products which they assert and advertise to be identical within some technical standard.
What is ISO 9000?
ISO 9004 is an umbrella term that refers to a standard developed and published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The current version of this standard is ISO 9004:2009 and is titled "Managing for the sustained success of an organization-A quality management approach"
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