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Terms in this set (35)
First battle of Ypres
Nov 1914- British took over to maintain access and control of English Channel ports.
Battle on Hill 60
Apr 1915- British tunnelled into hill and exploded 5 mines to take the hill
Second battle of Ypres
May 1915- First time chlorine gas was used, by Germans
Third battle of Ypres
Jul-Nov 1917- British used creeping barrage. Bad weather and ground was waterlogged so many drowned.
Jul-Nov 1916- 10,000 casualties expected by 60,000 on first day. 400,000 allied casualties total.
Apr-May 1917- British expanded underground tunnels, quarries and caves in chalky ground. 700 beds with running water and electricity.
Nov-Dec 1917- First large scale use of tanks which were successful but not backed up by British.
First trenches were hurriedly dug by troops in existing ditches or banks. Constantly maintained with drains and steps added.
Varied in different places but there was usually deep mud prone to water logging. Craters and holes from explosions.
The trench system
Front line/firing/attack trench- Nearest to the enemy, spent 15% of time. Support trench- safe retreat in case enemy is quick, 10% of time. Reserve trench- mount a counter attack, 30% of time. Communications trench- trenches together. 10-20m
Greatly feared but not a major cause of death. Caused blindness, coughing and burns. Gas masks to all British troops in Jul 1915. Cotton pads soaked in urine. Gas gangrene bacteria in wounds.
Caused by shrapnel. Soft caps replaced by Brodie helmets in 1915.
NYDN. Psychological reaction to trauma of war. Medical assessments and some special hospitals.
Lice living in seams of clothing. Flu-like symptoms lasted up to months. Disinfected clothing and built bath houses used chemicals.
Standing in water logged trenches. Lead to gangrene treated with amputation. Give whale oil and spare socks, pumps would drain trenches and duckboards added.
Automatic rapid fire. Bayonet. Pointed bullets went deeper in body. 500m range.
500 rounds a minute=100 rifles. Mass produced. Damaged vital organs and bones
900kg shells over 12 miles. Bombardments could last months. Responsible for 1/2 of all casualties. Removed limbs, internal damage and blood loss
Hollow shell packed with steel balls, gunpowder and timer fuse. Exploded into many fragments mid-air. Blood loss, facial injuries.
Injuries on the body
Bullets caused 39% of wounds. 5% of wounds from bayonet, grenade and pistol. 58% of wounds caused blood loss. Less than 5% died from gas. 20% survival rate of broken bones. 41,000 amputated limbs
Royal Army Medical Corps- 1898 provided food and kept men healthy, good sanitation and treated wounded. 1/2 of Britain's doctors joined. Nurses from 300-10,000 and doctors from 9,000-113,000.
First Aid Nursing Yeomanry- voluntary in 1907 in Sudan. Ambulance, kitchen and mobile bath unit . 22 drivers and 12 ambulances in Calais for 2 years. 500 women.
Difficult terrain so only stretcher-bearers and horses. Roads and railways destroyed. Shelling and artillery. Raised funds in Britain for 512 motor ambulances.
Chain of evacuation
Stretcher bearers, Regimental Aid Post, Motor Ambulance, Casualty Clearing station, Hospital train, Base hospital.
Regimental Aid post
Close to front line. Medical officer helped administering first aid and sent more serious injuries to next stage
Mobile unity of RAMC set up dressing stations 1 mile from front. Medical officers and nurses from 1915. Look after for a week or send serious cases to CCS
Casualty Clearing Station
Larger and better equipped. Several miles back with doctors and nurses. Prioritised injuries and tried to reduce risk of infection.
Near ports on the coast. Specialist doctors and patients could spend longer before going home or back to the front.
Shrapnel blew facial features off, especially nose. Take pedicle on forehead or pedicle tube from arm or abdomen. Men could live with relatively normal facial features. Harold Gillies.
Heads were vulnerable to bullet/shrapnel wounds. Surgeons would put rubber bands around head to prevent bleeding. X-rays could identify bullets
80% with fractured femur would die. Pulled leg length ways to prevent grinding and blood loss. 20% died and fewer amputations. Dec 1915
Treating wounds and infection
Kill germs before they got to the wound. Theatres and hospitals thoroughly cleaned and all instruments steam sterilised. More complex surgery
Pass through flesh and tissue but not metal or bone. Widely used by cathode rays in tube against black paper. Wilhelm Rontgen 1895.
Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups in 1900. Each group was compatible and as long as the donor was in the same room, they could have a safe transfusion. Add sodium citrate to store it. 22 units in Cambrai
Chemical going through the wound- salt solution
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