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Terms in this set (231)
Hardwoods grown in the uk tend to be from Broad-leafed, deciduous trees that lose their leaves each autumn. Beach, oak and ash are examples of hardwood trees grown in the uk. Hardwoods grown in the rainforest include teak and mahogany. Harwood: is also timber that tends to be from growing , broad-leafed trees.
Examples: Beech, Oak, Ash, Mahogany, Teak.
Softwoods come from conifers, which are evergreen trees. Most conifers keep their needles throughout the year. Large amounts of softwoods such as pine and cedar are imported into the uk from Scandinavian countries, while the uk produces about 10 per cent of its own softwood in plantation. Softwood: timber from quick growing conifers Examples: pine, Cedar.
Manufactured Boards are made by changing logs into a variety of forms and then gluing them together to create sheet materials. The reason for doing this process is to produce large, flat sheets of timber that are stronger and more stable than conventional wide boards of softwood and hardwood. This process often uses more of the trees and therefore can be used to produce large boards of timber more economically.
Life cycle of wood
Life cycle of Wood: first of all the trees are planted and then the tree is cut then transported by road rail or river. The tree is converted to useful sizes then transported to a factory then it is product manufactured then sold to the retailer which then the retailer sells to the user and then the user after they have used it recycle it back to the place where the product is manufactured or composted or gets left on a landfill. Environmental consequences: when the wood is transported the transport used causes pollution and where the tree is converted into useful sizes will let off harmful fuels and gasses.
Ferrous Metals are metals that contains iron and varying amounts of carbon. They are normally magnetic.
Examples: stainless steel
Non Ferrous Metals are metals that do not contain iron.
Examples: Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Gold, Lead and Tin
Alloys are a combination of two or more metals
Examples: Brass, Steel, Bronze and Pewter
Life cycle of metals
Life cycle of Metals: The ore is dug from the ground and then transported to where the ore is converted to metal using huge amounts of energy then the product is manufactured and then sent to the retailer which is then sold to the user and then the user disposes the metal and it is either melted down using as little as 5% energy or put in a landfill. Environmental consequences: when the ore is dug up from the ground it uses a lot of energy and there is a lot of fumes going into the atmosphere and there is also a lot of energy used when they convert it into metal. When it is left in a landfill for a long amount of time it damages the earth.
Thermoplastics it is the most common plastic because it can be reshaped when reheated. Common thermoplastic names, PET,HDPE,PVC AND LDPE.
Examples and Common Uses: Bottles, food containers, bowls, buckets, pipes, window frames, flexible hoses, toys and transparent packaging
Thermosetting Plastics . The chemical polymers that make up these types of plastics bond permanently when heated and set hard as they cool.
Examples and Common Uses: surface coatings(Epoxy resign) laminates for work surfaces, tableware (melamine formaldehyde). saucepan handles and cheap electrical fittings (phenol formaldehyde) car parts, glass reinforcing (polyester resign). adhesives, electrical fittings such as light switches urea (formaldehyde).
Life cycle of plastics
Life cycle of Plastics: Crude oil is extracted from the ground and then shipped or piped then the oil is refined to produce plastic. The product is then made and sent to the retailer and distributed to the shops, when it is disposed it is then recycled and eventually sent to landfill.
Environmental impacts of plastics
Environmental consequences: One of the positive characteristics of plastic is the fact that it is durable. Unfortunately, this is not a positive characteristic when it comes to the environment. The fact that plastic is durable means it degrades slowly. In addition, burning plastic can sometimes result in toxic fumes. Aside from trying to get rid of plastic, creating it can be costly to the environment as well. It takes large amounts of chemical pollutants to create plastic, as well as significant amounts of fossil fuels.
GRP consists of strands of glass fibres that are coated in polyester resin.
Common Uses: sailing boat. Kit car
Kevlar is similar to carbon fibre matting. Very strong plastic material woven to form a mat.
Common Uses: Kevlar is used make items as badminton and tennis rackets, helmets and bullet-proof vests. Body armour
Carbon Fibre is reinforced plastic - similar to GRP. Strands of carbon that are coated in polyester resin - used in high performance products.
Common Uses: track bike tennis racket
Polymorph can be used to help produce ergonomically designed handles
Because nano particles are light stiff and strong. They can be used to make many things such as jet ski hulls. Reducing the weight and giving a high gloss Finnish allowing reduced surface tension on water and increased preformance
Knock down fittings
Knock down fittings is when product is disassembled so that they can be flat packed to be able to be portably transported to somewhere and put back together again. They are usually assembled with a screwdriver or an Allan key and the materials they are putting together are wood, metal and sometimes plastics
Nails are metal knock down joints that can hold materials to together. They are made from steel and require a hammer to put into place
Screws are use to join a variety of materials together.
nuts and bolts
Nuts and bolts are usually used for fixing metals together and are often not permanent. They come in a number of shapes or sizes dependent on use
Rivets are a way to join metal sheets together without having to use heat
Is a waterproof but weak adhesive only suitable for modelling or temporary fixings that works on wood, metal and plastics
PVA glue is a liquid adhesive that produces a strong joint that works on wood
Is a waterproof medium strength adhesive that comes in a liquid form that works only on thermoplastics
Is a waterproof adhesive that gives a strong joint that comes in a powder form that only works on wood
Is a waterproof strong adhesive that works on wood, metal and plastic
Epoxy resin is a waterproof strong adhesive that is made by applying an equal amount of resin and hardener together. It works on wood, metal and plastic
Super glue is a waterproof medium strength adhesive that comes in a liquid form. It works on wood, plastic and metal
Lacquer adds a clear shine and good protection to metal. It is solvent based and is fast drying
Finishes for wood
Some finishes for wood are:
Wax- adds a shine and some protection
Oil- add a shine and some protection
Stain- changes wood colour but adds little protection
Varnish-adds shine and good protection
Paint- adds colour and good protection
The butt joint is a simple joint to construct. Members are simply docked at 90 degrees
A mitre joint is a joint done by sawing down two sides by an equal angle to form a complete angle
A finger joint is a joint by a set of complementary rectangular cuts into two pieces of wood which is then glued
A dowel joint is a cylindrical rod, that is then inserted into another material which has holes of equal size
Soft soldering is a quick method of joining metals together. It can also be used to fix electrical components together
Welding is a process of joining to metals together by oxidising the two metals together with heat
Physiological factors are the the physical capabilities people have such as size, strength and stamina. Other ones are hand-eye co-ordination. the study of these factors is known as ergonomics
Psychological factors are the how our human senses affect a product design. Some examples of this are, the height of a step and the heat from an oven door. Another example of this is colour as it has the ability to set a mood for a product, that is why kids toys are often have colours like bright reds, blues and yellows. sound is also a thing designers can use, some examples of that are a whistling kettle, reversing truck etc.
Sociological factors are taken into consideration when producing a product on a mass scale. it is to do with a humans problems in relation to the environment. an example of this is public transport, busses often to have large gaps of space to allow for people not to feel crowded in that environment.
The arts and crafts movement
The arts and crafts movement was founded in the 19th century. This design movement would was to do with products such as, wallpaper, furniture and textiles. these patterns would often be inspired by organic shapes and patterns found in nature.
Art nouveau was founded in 1895 in Paris, it was based of organic lines of climbing plants and Japanese art. It was used in the designing of glass, furniture, fabrics and wrought iron work.
Modernist designs were made ergonomically for the benefit of the physical needs of the customer. The products produced under the modernism movement were made using appropriate material and used very little decorations. It led to designer such as Mackintosh to move away from organic lines with starting to use modernistic geometric shape that were mass produceable
Bauhaus was founded in Germany in 1919 using mass production techniques with modern materials. Different from modernism though Bauhaus tended to use bright colours that were artistic and skilled. While following the understanding. Form should follow function
Art Deco is a fashionable and glamorous design movement formed in 1920. It was most commonly used in interior design, however its influences can be seen in the architecture of the time it was formed. One famous designer to of used Art Deco is Clarice Cliff, she used art Deco on ceramics, decorating her work with bright bold style.
The design movement De Stijl was formed in Holland. It primarily used basic shapes and primary colours with geometric shapes. It was used in many ways, most noticeably in architecture and furniture.
Smart materials are used in production as they have the capability, unlike normal materials, to change there properties depending on things such as the environment. Smart materials allow a designer o develop products at a higher scale of functionality as well improve existing products. Use of smart materials can also reduce weight and chances of a reliability failure
Photochromic materials allow a change in colour against the light. An example of this are glasses that have lenses that get darker depending on the light.
Another type is thermochromic materials which allow for a change in colour of the material depending on the temperature. An example of this is bath plugs that change colour based upon if the water is to hot, cold or just right.
Electroluminescent materials can produce light of different colour depending on the power of the electric current passing through them. An example of this are when in use of an emergency to show we're it is.
Another material are fluorescent materials that produce depending light when exposed to UV rays.
Shape memory alloys are metals after being strained can be turned back to there original format at the right temperature. An example of this is stents that are placed in arteries and expand at body temperature to open up the arteries.
Temperature-changing materials such as thermoelectric act like a heat pump. When one side of metal is cooled the other heats up. A plate has been developed using this to help keep certain parts of food warm and others cold through the polarity of the power source.
Magneto-rheological fluids become solids when placed in a magnetic field. They can be used as dampers to suppress vibrations. These can be used to support buildings.
Nano technology involves working with materials that are less than 100 nano meters in size. They are useful due to us being able to manipulate every single atom to modify a materials properties.
Fibre optic is produced by the use of glass fibres to transmit light. They allow data to travel a long distance more efficiently.
waterproof and breathable
Waterproof and breathable fabrics, such as gore-tex and sympatex, consist of a porous membrane containing billions of microscopic pores which allowed moisture vapour to escape, but making sure water droplets are unable to enter. Laminating it produces a more versatile fabric in which the laminate protects it from any possible damage.
Packard being must be able to:
Protect the product from damage in transit and prevent tampering
Informing for buyers and users, including a picture of the product. Some information must be included by law
So what the product is containing such as small pieces, this is most common at packaging of flat packs
Transported from place to place easily
Preserved for time before bought by a consumer
Be easily noticeable on shelves for the consumer to be attracted to it
Labelling on a product is a legal requirement to allow the buyer to know what they are being offered. They may relate to things such as safety, name of product etc.
An exclusive design is a design produced to focus on a specific target market by focusing on certain stereotypes surrounding the product.
An inclusive design is a design made in aim to fit every bodies need for the product. These design often have to take into to account the ergonomics of people.
Anthropometrics is the study of measurement of the human body. These range between the averages of the human body for all kinds of age groups for all kinds of ligaments and. An example of a use in anthropometrics is during the production of a piece of furniture.
Continuous improvement is the evolving of a product due to a number of reasons to do with the consumer, market pull, or the manufacture to improve there product. This is done by assessing the product whilst it in work.
How continuous improvement takes place
Continuous improvement is done by a group of employees, known as quality circles, to ensure the product is continually improve if through contact with the consumer and updating the product specifications. A range of different issues may be taken into account including:
Improvements in production methods
Impact on the environment
Product durability or obsolescence
Feedback from the client or the consumer
This approach is called total quality management.
In order to make sure that the product meets the requirements of the client and consumer, companies often carry out market research. Specific groups may be targeted by this in order to get a clear understanding of people's needs and wants. A variety of methods can be used, such as:
Questionnaires- these cover a wide socioeconomic areas of different backgrounds
Survey- this is done to when targeting specific consumers
Testing- consumers are given samples of goods to test and feedback forms to complete
Sales- the number of goods sold gives an indication of the products popularity
Longitudinal studies- observing how consumers taste change over time
Product analysis is the analysing of specific product from a product designer to gain an influence from. Influences could be from a number of things such as nature, artists or designers, design movement or similar products. Analysing existing products can help us to keep and use ideas that work well and disregard those that are less effective.
Purpose of packaging
The purpose of packaging is to:
Protect the product from damage and prevent tampering
Information for the buyer or user about the product, for example a picture of the product or instructions on how to put it together. Some information has to be included by law
Be able to contain the product until use, for example being able to allow for small pieces of the product to not fall out
Allow the product to be able to be transported in bulk together in lorries etc. This can be mad easier if the design of the packaging is of a simple shape that can be placed close together easily
Be attractive and distinctive when on sale, this enable the buyer to find the product easier when stacked in masses with other product or to advertise itself as better compared to it counterparts.
Labelling is information or symbols used to give information to the consumer about the product. This can be used to do many things, for example making your label for the product look unique and creative could be to draw in the consumer and make them by your product. Or to show health and safety warnings such as the age restriction for a specific product.
legal requirements for labelling on packaging
For packaging, there are certain labels for a product that must be placed on a product. This information be could be for things such as health and safety. Some legally require labels are:
The name of the product
Information about the product
The European standards logo
Items included in the box
Weather the product is recyclable or not
A brand is a way of making a company's product or service more visible and recognisable. It also gives a product a personality that the consumer can engage with. This usage of brand can lead to the formation of a company consumer bond being formed with a loyalty to that product. And example of this is how people usually stick to a specific car brand as they have a short of allegiance to it
Uses of brands
Brands can be used to:
Identify the business so people know who you are
Create empathy with a target group
Show a level of business professionalism
Bring business to the company by making it visiable
Examples of questions raised in market research
Some examples of questions raised during market research are:
Who is your service/product aimed at
Who are your clients/potential clients
What do your potential clients expect from your service
How are old are your clients usually
What gender are your clients
Where do your clients live
Do your clients care about price and affordability
What kind of lifestyle do they have
Quality assurance is the overall approach to ensure that products attain a consistent high standard. Throughout manufacturing process, materials, equipment, production processes and training of staff needs to be checked and monitored. Customer reviews may also be considered in the process.
As a product or its components are manufactured, a series of samples may be taken from the production line and checked to make sure that each part meets a specific, previously set standard. This is quality control and may take place every ten, hundred or even thousand being produced. Theses test may include factors like accuracy of dimensions, weight, flammability, fit and use. Manufacturers should include quality control test for there product.
A tolerance is made for a product that is in mass product. This is because of the understanding that it is not always possible for each product to be exactly the same therefore allowances to a certain measurement are made and are in plus and minus values of the same unit. Tolerances could be for size, weight and performance.
One-off production involves designing and making a single product, such a wedding cake, designer suit etc. A one-off product is designed for a specific purpose. When the a single product is made, all the designing etc is built into the costs- making the item pretty expensive.
People working on these products tend to undertake a broad range of tasks using generalised tools and equipment.
Batch-produced products are identical and made at the same time in either large or small numbers. once these products have been made using the same equipment. Chairs, magazines, books, and small electronics are usually batch-produced.
people working on these products tend certain jobs to do and workers may not have a broad range of skills. Manufacturing aids, such as jigs and former's) are commonly used so that each part can be repeated easily. specialised tools and equipment are even more commonly used.
Mass production involves the product going through many stages of a production line. The workers and machines at each stage are responsible fro making certain parts of the product. Workers tend to specialise in small range of tasks. The costs of the plants (factory or manufacturing complex) is high to ensure that products are made very efficiently.
In continuous production, the produced over a period of hours, days, weeks or even years. The production line will never stop at all. due to this there is mainly just automation running the plant with very few workers in comparison with the number of products made. Typically the work force there is is less skilled due to the high amount of machine usage. The cost of this plant is high and is often designed to produce a very limited range of products.
Just-in-line production (JIT)
Just-in-line production (JIT) has been developed for products where there are a lot of different options available. Modern car manufactures are usually organised around JIT. Each part of the product is planned arrive on the production line just in time for its assembly so when you order something, there are parts at the factory from when you've ordered, no earlier. This is good as it reduces the money needed in storing materials. However if an order turns out to be late the entire production grinds down to a halt.
What is just-in-line production (JIT)
This process involves working closely with your supplier so that every thing needed to produce the product turns up at the right time. This is known as logistics.
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
This involves the transfer of structured data from one computer system to another without human intervention. For example the ICT can be used to transport data files between trading partners.
How can electronic data interchnage (EDI) be used
One advantage of Electronic data interchange (EDI) is that it can be shorten the supply chain by speeding up the time given to initiate and agree customer orders. This allows for the computers in the factory to immediately set up to do there specific job.
CAD (Computer-Aided Design)
Used to create, modify and communicate product ideas. The input and processing of CAD is outputs CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacture).
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing)
Used in manufacturing processes to monitor and control production. With the input of CAD (Computer-Aided Design) CAM is produced as an output.
Advantages of computer-aided design (CAD)
Some advantages of CAD (Computer-Aided Design) are:
The better accuracy of designs, when transferring them onto material
The potential for storage and use of ideas and information
The ability to use the exact same design repeatedly with no differences in them when transferred onto material
Less human intervention and labour cost
The capability of full automation
Flexibility and facility for quick change set-ups
Reduces planning and development time, allowing more time for production
Stress analysis, an ability to determine wether a material or object can withstand forces, this is useful for the manufacture of products such as
Disadvantages of using CAD (Computer-Aided Design)
Some of the disadvantages of CAD (Computer-Aided Design) is that:
Difficulties with ensuring data is secure
Risk of data
High initial investment in plant and training
An accurate process which enables products to be modelled from the designer's CAD (Computer-Aided Design) drawings, which are passed directly into CNC machinery. These models provide information for both designer and manufacturer; problems are identified early, thus avoiding unnecessary delays and costs. This is rapid prototyping, and is used to replicate injection-moulded components, for example where the cost of making mould might run to hundreds of pounds. It allows complex forms to be tested for fit prior to investing in costly mould-making.
Rapid prototyping process that produces realistic models and working prototypes. A CAD/CAM laser draws outlines of the design of the product onto liquid resin. Where the laser touches the resin it solidifies, building a 3D prototype identical to the design.
This process is very versatile and a popular form of moulding most common forms of plastic. This involves the heating the heating of plastic granules until soft. These are then injected into metal moulds where the molten plastic hardens into the desired shape before being removed as the desired part you wished o produce.
A tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end, through which compressed air can pass.
This process is one of the most common moulding processes. It is used to manufacture things such as drinks bottles and shampoo bottles and other hollow plastic products. To complete blow moulding
The molten polymer is fed through a die to emerge as a hollow plastic tube, parison.
Once done a hollow tube mould is made to surround it enclosing at the bottom of the parison
The parison is cut at the top before inflate ing it with air pushing the parison out until it fits the mould
Once this is cold the mould is removed and the process is complete
Is a very popular board used for building and general construction. This board is made up of layers of wood glued with their grain at 90 degrees to each other. This makes it strong for its weight compared to wood. When this board is varnished with veneer to make it look better.
This is a thin layer of good quality wood, to make it look boards look better.
This is not as strong as plywood but is a lot cheaper when you need a thicker board. To make this board strip with softwood (usually pine or spruce) between 7 mm and 25 mm thick are glued together, side by side, and sandwiched between between 1 to 2 layers of veneer between each other. The outer strips of the veneer are glue to the grain and make it look nicer.
This type of board is cheap but not very strong and is produced by compressing wood particles together with glue. It is usually used with a hardwood or veneer surface and is used in table tops or cheap furniture.
MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard)
Is a very popular cheap board that is viewed as pretty. It is formed by breaking down soft wood into tiny fibres, mixed with glue, heated and compressed into panels. This makes it denser and cheaper than chip board and makes it not warp when it is damp. This board also has a soft face as well as taking paint and other finishes well, this is why it is often seen as painted or with veneer on top, and is used in furniture or shelves.
Is a board much like MDF in the way of its looks and cheap cost, but thinner and a lot more dense as well as being the cheap alternative to plywood. It is formed by tiny fibres compressed together with glue into panels that have one soft side and one textured side. So,times this board also has a plastic surface on one side, and is used for cupboard backs or drawer bottoms.
The dimensions of board are these:
2440 mm long
1220 mm wide
And either 3 mm, 6mm, 9mm etc (going up in 3mm intervals) in thickness.
Is a board with holes already punched in - ready for putting wholes in or attaching shelves.
This is made of MDF and comes in different sizes. Is used for things such as picture rails and door panels.
These product are products that are designed to become useless, for example a disposable razor becomes blunt after a few uses and its blade is not able to be replaced. Another example are products with up to the minute designs become useless quickly so the consumer is encouraged to buy the newer up to date model. However these products are not good for the environment due to the amount of resources needed energy needed to produce them.
These products are made to last a long time and be maintained and repaired or able to replace certain parts of it. For example a bike chain, when rusty you are able to clean and oil them. And when they eventually break after a long time, you can buy a replacement chain, not a whole new bike.
This is the amount of green house gases, e.g carbon dioxide, that is produce during the production of a product. This means that any emissions from the production of the product, transporting of the product and overall use of the product produced counts toward it. This is not considered good for a product to have if it is really big, but can be easily reduced by improving the energy efficiency of the product.
These are used when designing to reduce the impact that a product has on the environment.
It is better to fix a product than throw it away. For example repairing your phone is usually the same price as buying a new phone, however the environmental impact or doing this is considerably less than getting a new phone.
It is statistically proven that customers can considerably extend the life of a product by passing it on or using it again. Some people do this to the product to give it a different use, e.g using a tyre to form a swing.
This process of used materials requires less energy than obtaining new materials, e.g by extracting metal. Products that contain more than one material should ideally complete this process and be easy to separate the 2 materials. Clear labels on the packaging should be done to help this.
This process of looking at your product and thinking of ways to improve it. Example adding a wind up on a portable radio meaning when the batteries die on the radio there is still another way of using it.
Making a product do this means making the product long lasting and durable. For example supplying reusable batteries with the product allows for the customers to not need to keep buying new products, and allows for the manufacturer to cut down on energy and use of transport.
It is always important for a designer understands that the consumer is what keeps their product on the shelf. Therefore if the consumer feels that thief is something wrong with the product, there is to much waste packaging or the inability to recycle the product, the consumer can always refuse it.
Printing quality control
To keep printing quality control up to scratch, printer use special marks on their printing area. They are:
Added to each of the 4 printing plates in the exact same position. The printer will then be able to regularly check the alignment of each plate by its colour. The registration mark should always be the colour of the last ink used on the printing page.
These are used on the printing plates to maintain the quality of of the colours used. This is added to to the image to show the density of the colours. This is checked on by a densitometer.
Measures the density of any colour.
This is found at the four corners of the printed sheet to show the outline of the finished image should be to help the printer to be able to guillotine the the final design.
This is done to an image to make it 3mm bigger than the necessary amount needed. This is called
Benefits of print finish
The benefits of print finishes are:
To help sell the product
Protect the surface of the packaging
Different types of print finishes
Some different types of print finishes are:
Negatives of print finishes
The negative of including print finishes is that when used, the cost of the product usually doubles due to using another machine to do add the finish.
Is done by passing the finish under ultra violet light which makes the finish set immediately giving a smooth and soft feel this is called ...
Is done the same way as the previous process but on only certain parts of the packaging, this is ...
Finish is often used to make the product look expensive and is done by pre glueing metallic foil onto the printed surface by the use of heat and pressure. It is used a lot on cards and expensive packaging.
This finish provides greater protection as well as improving the appearance and a wipe off surface. The process involves heating a layer of a clear polymer, such as PET, to the printed surface, using heat and the pressure from a big Steel roller.
This is a process that raises the surface of a material using a press or stamp. It is used to give a slight 3D effect to the area and therefore adding interest to the design. However to do this the cost of the packaging vastly increases due to the pressure needed to produce this finish.
This process is done by laser cutting out the outline of an object onto a thick sheet of plywood to make a press forme. These laser cuts will be made to different depths to show where lines are needed to be cut or folded.
Reasons for packaging
The main reasons for packaging are:
Stacking and storage- to be able to store a product in mass quantities/ not having to much or to little of it
Information- specific description needed to give consumer info of the product but legal required and extra
Protect- to protect the product, example if it is fragile
Preservation- to allow the product to last long time, example keeping meat in an air tight packaging
Promote- to promote/ advertise the product.
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RM Unit 6
ACTY Ch. 1 Vocab