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Germany Wilhelmine Germany 1890-1914; Political, economic, social, cultural and ideological trends; social trends
Terms in this set (49)
what was the german population in 1914?
68 million- 60% higher than 1871
80% population were 45 or younger
what happened to infant mortality rates?
fell from 25% in the 1870s to 25% in 1912, due to improvments i hygiene and medical care
when was compulsory immunisation against smallpox introduced?
what did a diptheria serum available in the early 1890s cut the number who dies of the disease from?
from one in two to one six
how did german life expectancy change?
a german man born in the 1870s could expect to live to 36, a woman to 38. those born in the first decade of the twentieth centuary could expect to live to 45 and 48
when did a movment towards towns begin?
began in 1850. continued fasted after 1880. by 1910 2/3 germans lived in towns and over 1/5 lived in the 48 big cities with populations exceeding 100,000
what was the population of berlin by 1907?
over 2 million, of whom 60% had been born outside the city
what was the population of hamburg in 1914?
which cities had a population of over half a million?
cologne, dresden, leipzig, munich and breslau
why did germans move to towns?
they expected a better stadard of life
why did urban life seem attractive to many germans who lived and worked on the land?
they toiled long hours (a 100 hr week) for low wages. farm work was physically hard, especailly during haymaking and harvesting
what did the 'flight' from land to city result in?
labour shortages in some aresas, leading to high levels of family self exploitation and the use of excessive child labour, despite this there were still over 7 million agricultural workers, on short term contracts in 1907
how were rural dwelers isoated from the rest of society?
around 1/3 of germanys population had no access to the railways, and didnt have educatioal provison and medical care
however at the beginning of the 20th c. what happened to argricultural workers?
money picked up so so did living conditions. thoses with 100-300 acres could become sucessful farmers
how much did wages rise in germany between 1885 and 1913?
real wages rose by over 30%
what happend to incomes between 1896 and 1912?
the no. of prussian taxpaers on under 900 marks a year fell from 75% to 52%
those with incomes between 900 and 3000 marks doubled from 22 to 43%
how did they have more leisure time?
working hours were 1/3 lower in 1914 than 1880- down to about 9.5 hours
what were urban living conditions like?
very poor. 1/3 germanys population lived at or below the poverty line. lack of urban housing produced a rising problem of homelessness
how many did the berlin homeless shelter accomodate in a year between 1900 and 1914?
over 200,000 men a year
what gender divide was there?
men and women rearly did the same work, even in the same industries women were given the 'unskilled' tasks
what ethnic divide was there?
policsh and italiam workers often created their own subcultures
what religious divide was there?
catholic and protestant
waht did skilled workers consider themselves?
superior to unskilled workers
what problems did workers have?
ill more oftenn, died younger, smaller. over crowded housing. most of income on food. depended on earnings of women and kids. job insecurity. 1/3 workforce experienced umemplyment in a year
what form of work loss was rapidly rising?
the employers lockout (when they stop employees from working e.g by shutting their factories)
how many w/c were victims of lockout in 1910?
nearly 250,000 workers
on average how many workers went on strike each year between 1905 and 1913?
200,000 workers on average
how many TU memberships were there by 1914?
how many members did the spd have?
almost 1 milion- largest socialist party in the world
what barriers were there to upward mobility?
material and mental barriers. school was expensive. scorn towards the 'soft' life of the m/c. strength and manual work was a source of pide.
most likely to move to the lower m/c if anywhere
what were the aspirations of the lower m/c?
greater than the w/c. made use of educatio to place their kids in better positions
how much did german uni enrollment expand?
from 23,000 in 1875 to 72,000 in 1912
what were the values of the bourgeosie?
seriousneess, respect, recitiude- percieved to be the manly virtues
what did the bourgeosie and the aristrocracy both fear?
organised labout which they regarded as a threat to domestic stability. most saw little good in the godless uncivilised proletariat
how many female domestic servants did germany have in 1907?
1.25 million. about the same as in 1882
what growing opportunities were there for unmarried middle class women?
female teacher training expanded from the 1890s
women were prominent in the expanding welfare provisions, such as nursing and social work
in 1899 german women were finally permitted to acquire medical qualifications agter long male resistance
what was the male reaction to female emancipation?
hostility to it remained deep rooted
where did women remain inferior?
in the law. the husband was the legal guardian of his wife. abortion was illegal and a double standard persisted in sexual morality. men could have mistresses, women were ostracised for committing adultery
however, by when were women becoming more pubilically active?
by 1914, at work, in charities and even in politics. mostly true of m/c women who had the greatest opportunities
what did imperial germmany like to see itself as?
orderly, peaceable society. they lived increasingly in a world of institutions that sought to discipline them. these institutions might encounter resistance, particularly from the lower classes, but there capacity to shape society was condiderable
what were crime statistics swollen by?
the growth of the police and by the addition of many new offences. murder and property crimes remained constant. crime rose in urban areas and declined in rural areas
why were german cities regarded among some of the safest in the world?
the murder rate was about 1/20 the spanish or italian one
improvments in living standards
german respect for authority
how was german society militarised?
the armys persence was visible everywhere- in barracks, drills and manoeuvers, reginmental bands and military parades. institues promoted solidarity values
what priviledges did soldiers have?
civilians were expected to step aside to allow an officer to pass in the street. a man in an army officers uniform was percieved to be powerful. in a famous incident in 1906 a cobbler with a criminal record dressed up in a captains uniform and led ten sodiets to the kopenick town hall where he arrested the mayor and stole 5000 marks
how did the army make enemies?
through its brutal handling of industrial disputes. military legal priviledges caused resentment amoung the propertied and educatied. the officer corps limited its appeal as a would be 'school of the nation' in so far as it treid to exclude unwanted elemetns- jews catholics and the m/c progressives
how many germans belonged to ex servicemens organisations by 1914?
who were the police heavily recruited from?
why did the police interfere heavily in everyday life?
so many activites were regulated, resulting in many minor ingringements of the law. stong measures against truancy created an enviable literacy rate. one police duty was to aprehend the 'work shy'. anyone found guilty of vagruancy, homelessness or begging could be sent to the workhouse.
what was germany based on as a state?
the law. soldiers aside, all germans were equal before the law. bureaucrats and the police were legally accountable for their actions. the german judicary enjoyed genuine independence. demands for tougher punishments emanating from the kaiser and conservative circles had little effect.
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