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Contemporary Urban Environments - AQA Geography, A-Level
Terms in this set (63)
The increase in the proportion of population living in urban environments compared to rural environments.
Define Urban Growth
The increase in the total population of a town or a city.
What is Urban Expansion?
The increase in size of geographical footprint of a city.
How are Urban Centres Important in Human Affairs? (4)
1. Organisation of economic production - e.g. concentration of financial services.
2. Exchange of ideas and creative thinking - e.g. universities.
3. Social and cultural centres - e.g. theatres.
4. Centres of political power and decision making.
How has the Distribution of Population in Rural and Urban Areas Changed?
In the 1950s, 30% of people lived in urban areas. In 2014, just over 50% lived in towns or cities. Last century's dominant rural culture has been replaced by a predominantly urban culture.
At What Rate is Urbanisation Taking Place in the Developing World?
Most people currently live in rural areas but it is rapidly changing. E.g. Beijing, China - urban population increased from 4.4 million (1970) to 20.4 million (2015).
Where are the Most Urbanised Regions in the World?
North America = 82% urbanised, Latin America & the Caribbean = 80%, Europe = 70%.
Where are the Least Urbanised Regions in the World?
Africa = 40%, Aisa = 48%. However, they are growing the fastest.
Explain the Process of Urbanisation
Occurs because of migration and natural increase. Many migrants are young adults. In developing countries it can lead to shanty towns.
Explain the Process of Sub-Urbanisation
The growth of areas on the fringes of cities. Urban residents move away from centre due to pull and push factors. Pull = greater open spaces, cleaner environment, wider range of employment opportunities. Push = increased traffic, higher pollution. Leads to the growth of suburbs.
How Does Suburbanisation Affect Rural Areas?
Puts pressure on greenfield sites and wildlife. Can often cause economic issues with businesses - people still work in CBD.
Explain the Process of Counter-Urbanisation
Increasing movement of people away from cities for 3 main reasons:
What is the New Towns Act of 1946?
Encouraged counter-urbanisation from major conurbations with the building of new towns such as Milton Keynes.
What is Urban Resurgence?
The movement of people back into the city caused by cities being in decline, outdate infrastructure. E.g. London Docklands - abandoned as industry and business left. Reached crisis in 1980s with increased riots, crime and race attacks.
What were the Key Problems Leading to Urban Resurgence?
1. Environmental: pollution, vandalism, poorly built tower blocks, overcrowding.
2. Economic: unemployment, poverty, low incomes.
3. Social: increased crime, falling birth rates, high conc. of ethnic groups.
What were the 5 Aims to Encourage Urban Resurgence?
1. Improve housing conditions.
2. Create new jobs & training opportunities.
3. Encourage private sector investment.
4. Enhance environment.
5. Convert derelict buildings & areas by gentrification.
How has the Number of World Cities Changed Since 1950?
In 1950, there were only two - Tokyo and New York. By 2014 there were 28. Its predicted there will be 41 in 2030.
What are the Characteristics of Mega Cities?
1. More than 2/3 are in developing nations.
2. Dominate national and regional economies.
3. Often have people living at opposite extremes.
What are the Characteristics of World Cities?
1. Play a large role in the economic well-being of the global economy - 100 cities = 30% of economy.
2. Allow global markets to operate at key locations.
3. Big resource and learning centres - use the population as a resource.
4. Manufacturing and distribution of goods has been outsourced.
5. Labour force is primarily polarised.
How are Cities Developing in Terms of Buildings?
Technological advances mean that major cities are now developing upwards, for office, residential and commercial space. E.g. Burj Khalifa = 828m tall.
What are the Economic Processes Associated with Urbanisation?
Cities attract migrants due to more better paid job opportunities. Businesses grow and become more profitable, leading to more jobs and wage rises. Commercial farming is the primary method of food production.
What are the Social Processes Associated with Urbanisation?
Cities have higher living standards, centres of cultural expression, migration increases diversity.
What are the Technological Processes Associated with Urbanisation?
Urban areas are 'hotspots' for technological advances. There are a large number of high tech industries that have emerged offering specialised, highly paying jobs. E.g. Silicone Valley, California. E.g. Tesla.
What are the Political Processes Associated with Urbanisation?
Urban growth may = bigger inequalities. New political movements are being made to represent the 'working class' (manufacturing jobs etc).
What are the Demographic Processes Associated with Urbanisation?
Cities are larger and wealthier, attracting more migrants, making the area more culturally and ethnically diverse and new areas emerge - China Town, NYC.
What is Deindustrialisation?
Fall in the % contribution of secondary industry to an economy in terms of value of input to GDP and importance as an employment sector.
How has Deindustrialisation Changed the Manufacturing Job Sector in the UK?
In 1970s, 5.2 million people in the UK worked in the manufacturing sector (25% of all jobs), in 2015, 2.6 million worked in manufacturing (8% of all jobs). The UK is the 7th largest manufacturer in the world.
How Did Deindustrialisation in the UK Alter Employment Levels?
Deindustrialisation caused unemployment to rise above 3 million in 1983, the highest rate since WWII.
What is Decentralisation?
Functions once centred within the central location or authority are now dispersed. E.g. land prices in the city centre increase, business shops and offices may relocate to suburbs, leading to a rise in out of town retail parks.
What was the 2015 Cities and Local Government Devolution Bill?
Came into place with the act of stimulation growth in towns and cities by allowing the areas to identify their needs.
How has the Service Sector Changed?
Rise of the service sector has been influenced by foreign direct investment and increasing demand at home, alongside slow growth of manufacturing. Dominates the UK economy - 77% in 2015. During 1980s, services industries (retail, banking) began to expand and dominate western economies.
What are Urban Development Corporations?
Used private funding to restore derelict areas. Focused on: physical redevelopment of derelict land, securing private sector and capital expertise. Generally a success, bring economic development to an area, however, local people and their own needs were often ignored.
Describe the London Dockland's Urban Development Corporation
Main aim: attract new businesses, improve local environment, create jobs and build homes. In just under 20 years: 24,000 new homes, 85,000 jobs, new schools, parks and facilities (e.g. water sports centre).
What is an Enterprise Zone?
Areas set up in 1981 to try and create development in areas of high unemployment. Aim: attract start-ups to create jobs by reducing tax on corporations and land. By 1990, EZs housed over 5000 companies, employing more than 125,000 people. However, opportunities limited because businesses often relocated to EZs not new start-ups.
What is the City Challenge Scheme?
Set up in 1991, local authorities were given more control to regenerate areas. In the programme, local authorities competed for government funding to regenerate areas. They worked with the local community and private companies to improve physical, economic and social environment.
Explain the Funding of City Challenge Schemes
Allocated to projects that benefitted the local community, e.g. improving housing, vocational training, and job opportunities. By 1997, over 50,000 jobs had been created and over 4000 homes were improved.
What are Partnership Schemes?
Since 2010, governments worked with private companies to provide finical support and expertise. The schemes improve local physical, social and economic conditions - e.g. Liverpool City Region Local Enterprise Partnership 2012.
What are the 4 Physical Factors in Urban Forms?
1. Topography - e.g. steep slopes = harder to build on, less accessible.
2. Water - e.g. lakes limit growth.
3. Natural resources - rich resources encourage growth.
4. Land type - e.g wetlands harder and more expensive to build on.
What are the 3 Human Factors in Urban Forms?
2. Infrastructure - e.g. developments often built along transport links = linear growth.
3. Land value - highest value of land in city centre.
What is the Spatial Pattern of Land use in the Developed World?
CBD surrounded by housing, inner city has high land value with high density housing but wages low, land value in rural area which are less dense. Wealthy live in rural areas, in larger, newer housing.
What is the Spatial Pattern of Land use in the Developing World?
Land value highest around city centre, with high cost housing and wealthy residents (immigrants). Medium cost housing surrounds this, may be informal settlements that have been improved.
What are Town Centre Mixed Developments?
Combination of residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses all physically and functionally integrated with free-flowing pedestrian access - e.g. the Shard.
What are Cultural and Heritage Quarters?
Attempt to promote growth, focus on cultural or heritage themes, such as the arts and creative industries, in order to revitalise the area. E.g. Southampton cultural quarter = SeaCity museum exhibiting the city's maritime history.
What are Fortress Developments?
Integrate greater security into the design of the building or land-scape. Driven by 2009 Home Office review that said soft targets were schools, events and shopping centres were vulnerable by major attacks. Characterised by: high fences, cctv, security bollards, rollers, shutters, electronic locking systems and clear boundary lines between territories.
What are Gentrified Areas?
Characterised by shift of urban community in an area, to be displaced by higher income residents or businesses. Often displaces poor.
What are Edge Cities?
Concentration of businesses, shopping and entertainment outside the traditional CBD. Majority developed post WWII between 1950 and 60 as car ownership increased.
What is a Post Modern Western City?
Characterised by flowing lines, with triangular and multi-levelled roofs. Emphasis on ornamentation. Move away from uniformity in architectures. Lots of multi-purpose centres, focus on tertiary and quaternary industry (IT), planning prioritises aesthetics, higher inequalities. E.g Gherkin and Cheese Grater show elements.
What can Poverty in Urban Areas Lead to?
1. Reduced access to education.
2. Reduced access to housing.
3. Poor nutrition.
4. Higher incidences of crime.
5. Less access to green areas.
What is the Urban Heat Island Effect?
Increased temperature in urban areas compared with surrounding rural areas. Most noticeable at night when winds are weak and during summer and winter months.
Why are there Higher Temperatures in the City?
Concrete and asphalt effectively store short wave radiation and increase absorption. Concrete can store 2000x more heat than an equivalent volume of air. Energy is slowly released at night.
How do Cities Contribute to the Urban Heat Island Effect?
Less natural vegeatation to offer shade and evapotranspiration. Lower albedo of pavements and roofs compared to country side = greater absorption of heat. Cities produce waste heat - lighting, air con, electrical devices.
How can the UHI Effect be Reduced in Cities?
Use of green roofs (increase vegetation, promote wildlife) and lighter coloured surfaces (reflect more sunlight).
How do Urban Environments Affect Precipitation?
UHI increase convection = showers and increasing chance of thunderstorm development by 25%. Low pressure caused by uplift = moist air drawn into city, increasing cloud formation and rain.
Describe Cloud Cover Levels in Urban Areas
Receive upto 10% more frequent cloud cover than surrounding rural areas.
How do Urban Environments Affect Wind?
Wind velocity generally reduced by friction and windbreak effect caused by buildings (can be 30% lower), windspeed affected by roughness of buildings and direction affected by position and height of buildings in relation to each other.
What are Urban Canyon Winds?
Winds created by narrow urban streets and office blocks funnelling the wind between them. Wind separates and travels down various streets.
How Does Air Quality in Cities Compare to Rural Areas?
10x more nitrogen oxide, 200x more sulphur dioxide, 10x more hydrocarbons, 2x more CO2.
How do Increased Pollutants Effect Urban Areas?
Increase cloud cover, precipitation and smog.
Describe Particulate Pollution in Cities
Tiny pieces of solids and liquid droplets floating in air. Can enter the lungs causing asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer and heart disease.
What is Photochemical Smog?
Pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur hydrocarbons come into contact with sunlight. UV causes them to break down into harmful chemicals. Common in hot sunny climates - Los Angeles, Mexico.
What is Temperature Inversion?
Layer of Warm Air Trapped Below denser, cooler air, keeping pollutants at ground level.
What Pollution Reduction Policies are in London?
Zero emission buses and taxis, ultra low emissions zone, working with business to phase out diesel generators, rewarding good practices, monitoring pollution.
What are the 6 Main Ways a City Can Reduce Pollution?
1. Congestion Charging - in London, reduced traffic and emissions by 15% in 1 year.
3. Public Transport Improvements.
4. Reducing Traffic.
6. Alternative fuels.
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