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Anatomy and Physiology - All key definitions
Terms in this set (70)
Joints where two or more bones meet and movement occurs
Connective tissues that attach muscles to bones.
A sac filled with liquid which reduces friction between tendons and bones inside a joint.
A tough but flexible tissue that acts as a buffer between bones to reduce friction.
A liquid that lubricates the joint and stops bones rubbing together to reduce friction.
Bands of elastic fibre that attach bone to bone to aid joint stability.
Tissue that holds bones together and stops synovial fluid from leaving the joint.
The lining inside the joint capsule that releases synovial fluid.
Decreasing the angle at a joint
Increasing the angle at a joint.
Pointing the toes to increase the angle at a joint.
Moving the toes towards the shin bone to decrease the angle at the joint.
Moving the arms or legs away from the body's midline.
Moving the arms or legs towards the body's midline.
A circular movement of a limb around a joint.
Prime Mover / Agonist
The muscle which is contracting to create movement at a joint.
The muscle that relaxes to allow a movement to take place.
Muscles that work as opposites to create and allow movement at a joint.
A muscle changes length and movement occurs.
When a muscle contracts and shortens in order to create movement.
When a muscle lengthens to create and control a movement too resit the force of gravity.
When a muscle contracts but no movement occurs.
Small air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.
A sheet of muscle involved in respiration.
The process where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged within the alveoli and capillaries in the lungs.
The protein within red blood cells that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body.
A chemical formed when haemoglobin combines with oxygen.
The distance that gases diffuse during gaseous exchange.
Thick, muscular blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood (with the exception of pulmonary arteries) away from the heart at high pressure.
The rhythmic throbbing of arteries as blood is pumped around the body. A way of measuring heart rate.
Thinner walled blood vessels that carry deoxygenated (with the exception of pulmonary veins) blood towards the heart under low pressure. Have valves to prevent backflow of blood.
Microscopic blood vessels with thin walls which facilitate gaseous exchange.
The narrowing of arteries to reduce blood flow through to certain areas of the body during exercise.
The widening of arteries to increase blood flow to the working muscles during exercise.
The redirection of blood from one area of the body to another.
Artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
Large vein carrying deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart.
Large artery carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the body.
Vein that takes oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
The upper chambers of the heart.
The lower chambers of the heart.
When either atriums or ventricles of the heart are relaxing and filling with blood.
When either the atriums or ventricle of the heart are contracting and ejecting blood.
The amount of force exerted on the blood vessels during systole and diastole.
One cycle of diastole and systole is called the cardiac cycle
Blood containing a high concentration of oxygen.
Blood containing a low concentration of oxygen.
The number of times the heart beats per minute.
The amount of blood being ejected from the heart's left ventricle per beat.
The amount of blood leaving the heart per minute.
Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
The increase in heart rate before exercise begins due to the release of adrenaline.
An active process of breathing air in to the lungs.
The process of breathing air out of the lungs.
A muscle that raises the sternum and aids inspiration during exercise.
A piece of equipment that measures the air capacity of the lungs.
The amount of air breathed in or breathed out in one breath. Increases during exercise.
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forced out above tidal volume. Decreases during exercise.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forced in above tidal volume. Decreases during exercise.
The air that remains in the lungs after a maximal expiration. This does not change during exercise.
The largest amount of air that can be expired after the deepest possible inspiration.
Exercise in the presence of oxygen for a long time at a moderate to low intensity. Oxygen used to create energy.
Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + CO2 + Water
Exercise in the absence of oxygen for a short time at a high intensity. Oxygen not used to create energy.
Glucose = Energy + Lactic Acid
The delayed onset of muscle soreness caused by micro tears in muscles during exercise.
Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption - The amount of O2 needed to recover from anaerobic exercise to repay oxygen debt and remove lactic acid.
The amount of O2 owed to the body following the build-up of lactic acid during anaerobic exercise
A feeling of sickness caused by over-exertion.
A lack of energy leading to decreased performance.
Involuntary muscle contractions linked to fatigue and dehydration which cause pain.
An increased in muscle size. Can occur in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.
A resting heart rate of less than 60bpm.
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