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Chemistry Flashcards IGCSE

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Is ammonium chloride soluble?
yes (All ammonium salts are soluble. )
Is barium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is barium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is barium nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is barium sulfate soluble?
no (Barium and calcium are the only insoluble sulfates. )
Is calcium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is calcium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is calcium nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is copper chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is copper nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is copper sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is magnesium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is magnesium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is magnesium sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is potassium carbonate soluble?
yes (All potassium salts are soluble. )
Is potassium sulfate soluble?
yes (All potassium salts are soluble. )
Is silver chloride soluble?
no (Silver and lead are the only chloride salts which are insoluble. )
Is silver nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is silver sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is sodium chloride soluble?
yes (All sodium salts are soluble. )
Is sodium nitrate soluble?
yes (All sodium salts are soluble. )
Is zinc carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is zinc sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
State the solubility rule for carbonates salts
all carbonates are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and ammonium
State the solubility rule for chloride salts
all are soluble, except silver chloride and lead chloride
State the solubility rule for nitrate salts
all nitrates are soluble
State the solubility rule for sodium, potassium and ammonium salts
all common sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble
State the solubility rule for sulfate salts
all sulfates are soluble, except those of barium and calcium
A gas is bubbled through limewater and the limewater goes cloudy. Identify the gas.
Carbon dioxide
Describe the test for ammonia gas
Turns damp red litmus paper blue
Describe the test for carbon dioxide gas
Bubble the gas through limewater and see if it goes cloudy
Describe the test for chlorine gas
Turns moist litmus paper white (bleaches)
Describe the test for hydrogen gas
Use a lit splint to see if the gas pops
Describe the test for oxygen gas
Use a glowing splint and see if it relights
In the test of a gas, a glowing splint relights. What is the gas?
Oxygen
In the test of a gas, a lit splint gives a squeaky pop. What is the gas?
Hydrogen
Which gas will bleach moist litmus paper?
Chlorine
Which gas will turn damp red litmus paper blue?
Ammonia
Describe how you would carry out a flame test
Put solid onto a wire. Put into a blue flame
In a flame test, why is hydrochloric acid used?
To clean the wire of any unwanted ions
How are calcium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is orange- red
How are lithium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is red
How are potassium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is lilac
How are sodium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is yellow
In a flame test, a blue-green colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Cu²⁺
In a flame test, a orange-red colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Ca²⁺
In a flame test, a red colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Li⁺
In a flame test, a lilac colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
K⁺
In a flame test, a yellow colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Na⁺
In the flame test for copper (II) ions what colour is the result?
Blue-green
Give the name of the blue precipitate formed when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Cu²⁺
copper (II) hydroxide
Give the name of the brown precipitate formed when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Fe³⁺
iron (III) hydroxide
Give the name of the green precipitate formed when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Fe²⁺
iron (II) hydroxide
How would you test for the ammonium ion (NH₄⁺)?
Add sodium hydroxide. If ammonium ions were present, ammonia gas will form which will turn damp red litmus paper blue
What is the test for copper (II) ions (Cu²⁺) and what is the result?
Add NaOH. A blue precipitate forms.
What is the test for iron (II) ions (Fe²⁺) and what is the result?
Add NaOH. A green precipitate forms.
What is the test for iron (III) ions (Fe³⁺) and what is the result?
Add NaOH. A brown precipitate forms.
What is the test for NH₄⁺ ions and what is the result?
Add NaOH. The gas (ammonia) turns damp red litmus paper blue.
When NaOH is added to a sample, a blue precipitate forms. What cation was present in the sample?
Copper (II), Cu²⁺
When NaOH is added to a sample, a brown precipitate forms. What cation was present in the sample?
Iron (III), Fe³⁺
When NaOH is added to a sample, a green precipitate forms. What cation was present in the sample?
Iron (II), Fe²⁺
When NaOH is added to a sample, the resultant gas turns damp red litmus paper blue. What cation was present in the sample?
Ammonium, NH₄⁺
Write a word equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and iron(II) sulfate
sodium hydroxide + iron(II) sulfate → iron (II) hydroxide + sodium sulfate
Nitric acid and silver nitrate are added to a solution containing bromide ions. Describe the result.
Cream precipitate
Nitric acid and silver nitrate are added to a solution containing chloride ions. Describe the result.
White precipitate
Nitric acid and silver nitrate are added to a solution containing iodide ions. Describe the result.
Yellow precipitate
Describe how you would test for carbonate ions (CO₃²⁻) and what is the result if they are present?
Add nitric acid and see if carbon dioxide bubbles form
Describe how you would test for sulfate ions (SO₄²⁻) and what is the result if they are present?
Add dilute HCl, followed by barium chloride (BaCl₂). A white precipitate will form
Describe the test for bromide ions
Add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate. A cream precipitate of silver bromide is formed.
In the test for carbonate ions, what is added to the sample?
nitric acid (HNO₃)
In the test for carbonate ions, what result shows they are present?
bubbles form
In the test for sulfate ions, what result shows they are present?
A white precipitate is formed
In the test for sulfate ions, what two substances are added to the sample?
hydrochloric acid (HCl) and then barium chloride (BaCl₂)
What 2 things are added to a solution to test for chloride ions? What is observed if they are present?
Add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate. A white precipitate of silver chloride is formed.
When testing a sample for ions, hydrochloric acid and then barium chloride are added to a sample. A white precipitate forms. What ions have been shown to be present?
sulfate ions (SO₄²⁻)
When testing a sample for ions, hydrochloric acid and then barium chloride are added to a sample. A white precipitate forms. What is the name of that precipitate?
barium sulfate
When testing a sample for ions, nitric acid is added to a sample and then bubbles are seen. What ions have been shown to be present?
carbonate ions (CO₃²⁻)
When testing a sample of ammonium iodide, nitric acid and then silver nitrate is added. Describe the result, and name the substance formed.
A yellow precipitate of silver iodide
When testing a sample of lithium bromide, nitric acid and then silver nitrate is added. Describe the result, and name the substance formed.
A cream precipitate of silver bromide
When testing a sample of potassium chloride, nitric acid and then silver nitrate is added. Describe the result, and name the substance formed.
A white precipitate of silver chloride
When testing for halide ions, after silver nitrate is added to a sample a cream precipitate is formed. Give the formula of the anion present in the sample.
Br⁻
When testing for halide ions, after silver nitrate is added to a sample a white precipitate is formed. Give the formula of the anion present in the sample.
Cl⁻
When testing for halide ions, after silver nitrate is added to a sample a yellow precipitate is formed. Give the formula of the anion present in the sample.
I⁻
When testing for halide or sulfate ions, why is acid added added first?
to remove any carbonate ions
Which two substances are added when testing for halide ions, and what is the result if they are present?
Add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate
Which two substances are added when testing for the sulfate (SO₄²⁻) ions? (2)
Add dilute HCl, followed by barium chloride (BaCl₂)
Write an chemical equation for the reaction between barium chloride and lithium sulfate (Li₂SO₄). Include state symbols. Also, what would you see?
BaCl₂ (aq) + Li₂SO₄ (aq) → BaSO₄ (s)+ 2LiCl (aq). Observe a white precipitate of barium sulfate.
Describe the chemical test for water
Add water to anhydrous copper(II) sulfate which will change from white to blue if water is present
What colour is anhydrous copper (II) sulfate?
White
What colour is hydrated copper (II) sulfate?
Blue