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Urban issues and challenges
AQA A GCSE 8035
Terms in this set (41)
the presence of chemicals and particles in the air that can be harmful to people or the environment.
the number of births in a year per 1,000 of the total population.
land that has been used, abandoned and now awaits some new use. Commonly found across urban areas, particularly in the inner city.
Central business district
central part of the city where most shops and businesses are located.
Combined heat and power
a more efficient way of supplying energy by using the same source of energy to generate electricity and provide heat.
the number of deaths in a year per 1,000 of the total population.
abandoned buildings and wasteland.
the area of land or sea needed to produce all the resources a city uses and to dispose of its waste.
chances for people to improve their living standards through employment.
this refers to the type of employment where people work to receive a regular wage and are assured certain rights, e.g. paid holidays, sickness leave. Wages are taxed.
green open space or land around cities on which there are strict planning controls to prevent urban development in the countryside, and further building development is not allowed.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
the total value of the goods and services produced in a country.
water found underground in pores and cracks in the rock.
differences between poverty and wealth, as well as in peoples' wellbeing and access to things like jobs, housing and education.
this type of employment comprises work done without the official knowledge of the government and therefore without paying taxes. It is common in many low-income countries.
Integrated transport systems
when different transport methods connect together, making journeys smoother and therefore public transport more appealing.
a site for the disposal of solid waste, often used to reclaim low-lying ground.
the average number of years a person might be expected to live.
an urban area with a total population in excess of ten million people.
when people move from one area to another. In many LICS people move from rural to urban areas (rural-urban migration).
population decline due to the birth rate being lower than the death rate.
the birth rate minus the death rate of a population.
Newly emerging economies (NEE)
countries that have begun to experience high rates of economic development, usually with rapid industrialisation.
the presence of chemicals, noise, dirt or other substances that have harmful or poisonous effects on an environment.
money put into businesses by private financial backers.
the reasons why people want to leave rural areas.
a zone of transition between the built-up area and the countryside, where there is often competition for land use. It is a zone of mixed land uses, from out-of-town shopping centres and golf courses to farmland and motorways.
movement of people from the countryside to cities.
measures designed to protect public health, including the provision of clean water, and the disposal of sewage and waste.
the degree to which an individual or an area is deprived of services, decent housing, adequate income and local employment.
chances for people to improve their quality of life through services like education and healthcare.
an area of poor-quality housing, lacking in amenities such as water supply, sewerage and electricity, which often develops spontaneously and illegally in a city in a low-income country.
Sustainable urban communities
focus on, for example, environmental and economic sustainability, urban infrastructure, social equity.
Sustainable urban living
includes several aims including the use of renewable resources, energy efficiency, use of public transport, accessible resources and services.
the buying and selling of goods and services between countries.
occurs when there is too great a volume of traffic for roads to cope with, so traffic jams form and traffic slows to a crawl.
the process of increasing and preserving open space such as public parks and gardens in urban areas.
the revival of old parts of the built-up area by either installing modern facilities in old buildings (known as renewal) or opting for redevelopment (i.e. demolishing existing buildings and starting afresh).
the process by which an increasing percentage of a country's population comes to live in towns and cities.
the process of extracting and reusing useful substances found in waste.
the spread of city buildings and houses into an area that used to be countryside
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