Area in the centre of urban areas where there is a concentration of retail and commercial services.
Zone is transition
Area between the CBD and suburbs, initially for industrial land use. Now, industries have relocated and a mixture of land uses can be found here (e.g. retail, residential, entertainment etc).
Section near the urban area that has a concentration of residential land use.
The boundary between the urban area and rural area. The area is demanded by lots of land uses and this demand may lead to conflict.
Commuter Belt / Villages (Dormitory Villages)
Areas of residential land use where people travel from to their workplace.
Land that has never been built on before.
Advantages of Greenfield Sites
Unpolluted land. Close to rural-urban fringe so transport links are good. There is likely to be room for expansion. Demand near rural-urban fringe is high, so it is easy to sell infrastructure and property.
Disadvantages of Greenfield Sites
Conflict with other land users may occur. Greenfield sites are protected by the government with strict regulations. Sites may be less accessible by transport. Public protests and arguments about land use on greenfield sites. Higher cost as it has never been built on before.
Land that has been previously built on and is current unused.
Advantages of Brownfield Sites
Cheap land as it has been used before. Many brownfield sites are located close to the CBD. Governments encourage building on brownfield sites. More transport links near CBD so easier access to brownfield sites.
Disadvantages of Brownfield Sites
Polluted land so clean-up costs are higher. Brownfield sites are not always located to where it is desired. Don't always have room for expansion. Not always in the desired shape and size.
Abandoned land that often become vandalised or run-down. It shows signs of disinvestment (people and businesses leaving an area).
Protected areas of land around large urban areas.
Strips of area jutting out from the CBD where urban growth is encouraged.
Number of houses per sq.km.
Urban Sprawl / Urban Growth
The spread or growth of urban areas into the rural-urban fringe.
Commercial Land Use
Businesses and offices, located mainly in the CBD.
Residential Land Use
Housing where people live. Apartments are found closer to the CBD and bigger houses are found near the suburbs.
Government housing provided to unemployed people or people with low incomes.
A single house that is not attached to any other house, usually with a garden and drive, found in the suburbs.
Two houses that are joined together with individual gardens and drives, found in the suburbs.
A long line of attached houses, typical in old industrial areas for workers. Housing is basic, often with no electricity and an outdoor toilet. Many have been knocked down or improved.
A house with only one floor, normally found in the suburbs. Desirable for old people who find it difficult to use stairs.
Flats / Apartments
Buildings with multiple levels, found towards the CBD.
Who owns the house.
Industrial Land Use
Factories and industries initially found in the transition zone. Now more commonly seen in the rural-urban fringe.
Agricultural Land Use
Farming, traditionally found in rural areas. Now, some cities have small urban farms.
Recreational Land Use
Land for activities that people do in their spare time (e.g. golf courses, museums, sports centres etc).
Retail Land Use
Shops, located within the CBD. Now, many shops are being set up in the rural-urban fringe.
Advantages of the CBD
Most public transport links head towards the CBD. Many nice buildings in the CBD. A mixture of services present in the CBD.
Disadvantages of the CBD
Shortage of space so infrastructure cannot expand. Shop rents are high because space is limited and land is expensive. Roads in the CBD are generally small, making it difficult for cars to drive. Limited parking space. Some derelict buildings with high crime rates which repels customers. Small roads cause deliveries to be difficult and delayed.
Advantages of the Rural-Urban Fringe
Plenty of land so expansion of infrastructure is available. Land is more available so it is cheaper. Many main roads so infrastructures are easily accessible. Delivery is much easier and faster.
Advantages to Customers in the Rural-Urban Fringe
New public transport links may be developed. New facilities that can be used by locals. New jobs are created. New buildings may attract more people, also helping existing businesses.
Disadvantages of the Rural-Urban Fringe
Customers without cars may find it hard to access buildings. Greenfield sites are destroyed, causing environmental damage. Setting up of new businesses in the rural-urban fringe may cause businesses in the CBD to go out of business. Greater use of cars causes larger amounts of congestion.
Disadvantages to Customers in the Rural-Urban Fringe
Increase in congestion as more people are travelling by car. Shopping centres create noise, air and visual pollution (negative externalities). Shopping centres may destroy greenfield sites that have been previously used and enjoyed by local residents.
Educational Land Use
Infrastructure relating to education, found anywhere in urban areas.
The increasing proportions of people living in urban areas.
Problems Caused by Urban Sprawl / Urbanisation
Congestion Destruction of greenfield sites Pollution Electricity blackouts Water shortages Unemployment Homelessness Growth of informal settlements Crime
Integrated Transport Network
Linking of different forms of public transport with each other.
The period of time when people commute (travelling to work and back home). Traffic is normally the worst during rush hour (7-9AM, 5-7PM).
Parents driving their children from home to work and back again, causing significant traffic around schools.