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A Level English Language AQA Terminology
Terms in this set (254)
The way that people pronounce sounds.
The way that pronunciations vary between different speakers, or the variations a single speaker might produce in different contexts.
A term used to refer to a standard or official language variety in contexts where creole is spoken
Initials that can be pronounced as words
In this verb form, the subject of the sentence performs the action denoted by the verb
The positioning of elements in an interaction, so that one follows on from another, although they don't have to occur immediately afterwards.
Give more information about nouns, describing the qualities of people and things.
Give more information about verbs - typically, where, when and in what manner the action of the verb takes place.
Things that are made possible. For example, a website can be read by many people simultaneously.
An alternative word for the subject in a sentence.
A process whereby a word or phrase develops more positive connotations.
Extending a label from one item to another by connecting their functions or how they are perceived
Attributing human characteristics to an animal or inanimate object.
Having no real connection beyond that of social interaction.
This refers to the way in which certain grammatical markings on verb forms indicate whether an action or state is ongoing. For example, the 'ing' form in 'looking' suggests continuous action: the 'ing' ending is called a 'progressive'.
In language study, texts are seen as making audiences, not just addressing them. This means that texts create an idea of who the audience is, by 'speaking' to them in a certain way.
A verb used in forming the tenses, moods, and voices of other verbs.
A term used in creole studies to refer to the most creole-like variety.
Within studies of language acquisition, a notion of learned behaviour as a set of responses to stimuli.
Using parts of existing words to form a new word.
A word or expression taken from another language.
A morpheme that cannot stand alone as a separate word
British Black English
A wide-ranging label, but often referring to a variety used by some speakers within the Caribbean community in the UK.
A process by which words acquire a wider reference.
An in-depth study of a single context that can be used to offer insights for further studies or other cases.
Inappropriately extending the meaning of a label to other members in the same category.
Child-directed speech (CDS)
Speech by caregivers to babies that relies on short sentences with clear pauses, careful enunciation, exaggerated intonation, and a high-pitched voice
Structured with reference to time.
A group of words in a sentence that contains a subject and a verb (predicate).
Clause of condition
A clause introduced by conjunctions such as 'if' or 'unless', suggesting that something will happen only if certain conditions are met.
The inclusion of words and phrases from one language in another.
Changing between two languages when speaking
This refers to thinking processes in the brain
The way sentences or utterances join together to form a whole text.
Two or more words that co-occur in a language more often that would be expected by chance.
Characteristic of ordinary conversation rather than formal speech or writing.
Community of Practice (CoP)
A group of people with common interests who come together to create, store, and share knowledge of a specific topic.
A tradition of complaining about the state of language.
A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
Adding two existing words together to create a new word.
a sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions.
The ability to understand language, which might differ from how much an individual can produce.
computer mediated communication
the exchange of messages carried through an intervening system of digital electronic storage and transmitted between two or more people
A line of text from a corpus, showing where the searched item occurred within a sentence or utterance.
a word or phrase that joins the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning.
Dialogue that is artificially created rather than occurring naturally. For example, in novels or playscripts.
In language acquisition, these are ready-made chunks of language that can be used productively to express many ideas.
In language study, changing one's language in order to move towards that of another individual.
A sociological approach that looks at how we create meaning in naturally occurring conversation, often by taping conversations and examining them.
The assumption that the speaker intends to say something concise, truthful, relevant, and unambiguous. Grice.
-joining elements together by using a co~ordinating conjunction, such as "and" or "or"
A collection of searchable language data stored on a computer.
Status gained from peer group recognition, rather than public acknowledgement
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
The assumption that texts promote or reproduce ideologies, and that people can be trained to critically read these texts, to be aware of what these texts are doing to them.
Critical analysis that pays attention to all aspects of a text or topic, seeing different perspectives.
A blend of 'cybernetic' and 'organism' describing a part machine, part human individual
a sentence that makes a statement
The idea that language is in constant decline
An assumption that something is lacking or deficient.
The act of pointing to something by using certain language items.
In studies of social networks, density refers to the numbers of connections that people have.
The belief that correctness is dependent on context and should be defined by what is appropriate in any context. Descriptivists take their norms from observing what the majority of people do, not what any particular authority says they should do.
Help to determine what a noun refers to. They can be wide-ranging in their reference, including quantity, definiteness, possession and demonstrativeness.
The idea that language determines the way we think and behave.
Variation through time
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Dialect levelling - Paul Kerswill
The way in which dialect terms have been falling out of use.
the dispersal of people and their languages to different parts of the world.
A writing activity where you are asked to write to a specific brief, rather than inventing your own.
written or spoken communication or debate
A group of people with shared interests and belief systems who are likely to respond to texts in similar ways
The internal structure of a text
An adverb that expresses a writer's or speaker's attitude, such as 'frankly' and 'fortunately'.
Where a feature is used, within the language inventory of an individual or group
Language mannerisms that emphasize a communicator's differences from others.
A direct form of language that doesn't attempt to disguise sensitive or difficult topics.
Elaborated code (Bernstein)
Idea that middle-class speakers use context-free, complex forms of language.
Typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message
fond word or act; expression of affection
Looking within the immediate community for the norms of language use.
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
English used as a contact language between speakers of different first languages
English as an additional language
The use of English where it is not the person's first language learned
An accent that originated in London and the south-east and that has spread outwards to other parts of the country
Feeling connected with people who have similar cultural backgrounds, heritage or family ties.
The study of how a group of people communicate.
a dialect spoken by a particular ethnic group
the study of word origins
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
Looking beyond the immediate community for the norms of language use
Something to do with forces beyond oneself. For example, many French terms came into English after the Norman conquest of 1066.
The use of spellings that represent the sound of dialectal (the way people speak in certain regions) or nonstandard forms, e.g. "enuff" or "wimmin"
Face Theory (Goffman)
The idea that we have a public self-image that we need to protect and project.
Face-threatening acts (FTAs)
linguistic strategies that threaten the negative or positive face of another participant such as commands, threats, warnings etc
a term that is used to describe the verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting image
A style of language used within a family
First Language (L1)
The first language learned by an individual, usually in childhood
Designed for use on serious or public occasions where people pay attention to behaviour and appearance.
The idea that speakers mark their understanding of the context they are in. For example, by smiling or laughing to show that they are being playful.
A unit of meaning that can exist as an independent word.
Emphasising what something is for, its purposes.
The idea that language changes because society does.
the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female
a term suggesting that masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects
For general use or general reference.
In language study, a type of text in any mode which is defined by its purpose, its features, or both.
How different genres of writing are structured and how people learn to produce them
German for shape or form and refers to the way in which children at a certain stage can compress a string of words into a single utterance. For example, while an adult would say 'what is that?' a child might say 'wassat?'
The idea of English as a worldwide language
an allophonic variation of /t/ or /d/, produced when the release of the stop is at the level of the vocal folds instead of at the alveolar ridge
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
A written representation of a sound using one or more letters.
All the visual aspects of textual design, including colour, typeface, layout, images and logos.
The relationship between symbols and sounds
A narrator who is not an active participant in the story
the belief that heterosexuality is and should be the norm
a single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought
A narrator who is an active participant in the story.
Blends of two or more elements. For example, new forms of communication are often seen as having some of the characteristics of both spoken and written language.
a word that is more general than another (e.g. animal is a hypernym for horse, plant is a hypernym for flower)
a more specific word within a category or under a hypernym
A common, often used expression that doesn't make sense if you take it literally.
Knowledge built up over time and used in order to understand meanings that are implicit
A type of bound morpheme that is inserted into the middle of the stem.
A morpheme on the end of a word to indicate a grammatical relationship or category
Someone who offers information to a researcher
an abbreviation consisting of initial letters pronounced separately
something in-built, already in place.
someone who participates in a conversation
A factor concerned with the internal structure of the language system. For example, English used to have different singular and plural forms of 'you': thee and thou to express and individual or to express closeness, and 'ye' and 'you' to address groups of or to express respect to a powerful being.
The idea of English as a language that is used in international contexts of all kinds
relationship between texts
The rise and fall of the voice in speaking.
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
the process by which the infants learn to understand and speak their native languagek
language acquisition device (LAD)
Chomsky's term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation.
A term used, usually by liberal commentators, to support the idea of consciously changing language because it is considered unfair to different groups
Priming that involves the meaning of words. Typically occurs when a word is followed by another word with a similar meaning—for example, when presenting the word ant before the word bug causes a person to respond faster to the word bug than if ant had not preceded it.
A 'liberated' suffix or one which has been taken from its original context and applied to new situations.
Creations of their time. For example after the launch of the Russian spacecraft 'Sputnik' in 1957 - growth in West of terms ending in 'nik'
Things that prevented or restricted. For example, an SMS has no way to conveythe subtleties of non-verbal communications (hence the need for emoticons).
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
The way in which language choices reflect ideas about what is appropriate for any given context.
the hypothesis that one's language determines the nature of one's thought
An item of language that is likely to vary and is therefore of interest to sociolinguists
In language study, identifying an item as different from the norm.
Matched guise technique
An experimental technique where a single actor puts on a different accent for different audiences, but keeps the content of the speech the same
Names that reflect female lines of inheritance
When decreolisation takes place, i.e., a creole language coexists with a standard language and the latter exerts some influence on the former, a range of varieties develop. In such a situation a continuum appears in the language and speakers in that speech community show a range of different pronunciation features, which are usually associated with social stratification.
One-word sentences that appear quite abstract; child makes a statement about one object in relation to another
Modal verbs (modal auxiliaries)
a type of helping verb that adds additional meaning to the main verb
Speech and writing are called different modes. Digital communication can draw on both of these modes, so is often called a hybrid form of communication.
a word, phrase, or clause that qualifies or describes another word, phrase, or clause
Having only one style of communication
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
The aspect of grammar that refers to grammatical markings. For example, the 's' ending on nouns can indicate a plural form (one book, two books).
Multicultural London English (MLE)
Variety of English spoken in London and further (known as MUBE) containing features of black British speech
Multicultural Urban British English
A label that refers to the way in which Multicultural London English has spread to other large conurbations in the UK
This type of text employs more than one mode of communication - for example, by using images as well as words, or by drawing on an aspect of speech as well as writing.
having multiple types of connections with another person in your group
Process by which one part of a text does more than just add to the meaning of another part. Like readers understanding images in the context of the words that surround them, and vice versa
the person "inside" the text to whom the narrator is speaking
A process by which words acquire a narrower reference. For example, 'deer' used to refer to animals in general, not to a specific animal.
A belief that language acquisition relies on an in-built capacity for language in humans
negative face needs
the desire to be autonomous, to have the right to do as we wish
The process of turning verbs (actions or events) into nouns (things, concepts or people).
Not structured with reference to time but shaped by other factors
In studies of literacy, non-linearity refers to new forms of literacy such as webpages, where we don't read line by line but often click through to further pages.
Communicating without the use of words.
a word or group of words that functions in a sentence as subject, object, or prepositional object.
The idea that language development results from being socialised by people around the learner
The thing or person on the receiving end of the action of the verb.
the idea that objects exist even when they can't be seen
The paradox that the only way to collect natural speech is the observe it - but the very act of observation is likely to destroy its naturalness.
An all-knowing figure who can report everything, including the thoughts inside all of the characters' heads
The ability to express oneself fluently in speech and to understand a spoken language
Status that is publicly acknowledged
vocalic behaviours that communicate meaning along with verbal behaviour
the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb
a regional dialect, especially a nonstandard one that has no written tradition
a name taken from one's father
Making something seem worse than it is; negative exaggeration
Language that is devoid of content but that supports social relationships
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Pivot Schema (Braine)
The use by children of certain key words as a 'pivot' to generate many utterances.
a set of assumptions about how intimacy and power are related to the use of more or less polite influence messages
Political Correctness (PC)
Terminology arising out of society's desire for language which reflects and encourages attitudes of tolerance and acceptance, particularly with regard to gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation etc. For example 'hearing impaired' for 'deaf' 'firefighter' for 'fireman
positive face needs
The desire to be appreciated and approved, liked and honoured
A word such as 'your' or 'my' that tells you who something belongs to.
occurring or existing after the end of colonial rule
A developmental stage that goes beyond children's use of abbreviated speech
Pronouncing an /r/ after a vowel where there is an r in the spelling. For example, 'farming', 'sir', 'horse'.
Pragmatic rules of language
govern how people use language in everyday interaction
pragmatics of language
rules for using language in different contexts
a particle that comes before a root word to change its meaning
A word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word
The attitude or belief that one variety of a language is superior to others and should be promoted as such.
Progressive form of a verb
A verb that is ongoing, ending in 'ing'
A word that takes the place of a noun
how we use rhythm, stress, intonation and pace in speech to create particular effects
Random fluctuation theory
The idea that language change is not a logical and ordered process
Received Pronunciation (RP)
The accent associated with upper-class speakers of English.
The thing or person being referred to
The idea that language reflects the society that produces it
A form of specialist language. For example, the language of sport or science.
Another word for a relative pronoun, for example 'which', 'who' and 'that', often used at the front of a subordinate clause
The range of language forms or styles used by a speaker.
Restricted code (Bernstein)
highly sociolectal variety used when the audience shares similar interests, experiences and expectations of the world
A particular way of producing the sounds /t/ and /d/ with the tip of the tongue curled back and touching the roof of the mouth
The study of persuasive language, an area of study dating back to Ancient Greece.
Accents where speakers produce the post-vocalic /r/, such as in many rural accents in the south-west region of the UK.
the idea that language structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language
support of learning allows students to complete tasks they are not able to complete independently
The mid-central vowel in an unaccented or unstressed syllable
To perceive the boundaries or breaks between units. This is a skill that is gradually acquired. Adults may not be aware of how they run words together in speech. For example, a child once asked a teacher how to spell 'sponner': he'd heard 'once upon a time' as 'one sponner time'.
People describing their own language use (as opposed to being recorded using language)
Group of words which are related in meaning
Taking language that has had negative connotations and trying to overturn them by using the language in new ways.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation
Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume.
a word or pronunciation that distinguishes someone as being of a particular group
Theoretical perspective that focuses on people's collective efforts to impose meaning on the world.
The variation that occurs as a result of the social groups people connect with. For example, groups based on common interests such as sport or cookery
The variety of language that is typically used by the members of a particular social group
investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation
Phenomenon by which certain sounds are evocative of a particular meaning.
one or more speech acts involving one or more participants
The process by which a form of language is developed and used as a common code.
An intrusive concern with correcting others' language use.
A language where stressed syllables tend to occur at regular intervals and syllables are not assigned the same stress.
The thing or person carrying out the action of the verb
The perspective taken on a topic, where some aspects are foregrounded and emphasised while others are downplayed.
The dependence of one syntactical element on another in a sentence.
A particle added to the end of the word
Language use that deliberately intensifies the standard forms of mainstream culture.
Change across society at a single point in time
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
Words that are typically avoided because they are considered offensive
needless repetition of an idea by using different but equivalent words; a redundancy
Telegraphic Stage (18-27 months)
Child goes beyond the two-word stage. Most words are content words with high semantic value that can be used in multiple situations (nouns, adjectives, and verbs).
The study of the relationship between language use and religious faith.
to alternate who talks
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Applying a label to fewer referents than it should have. For example, a child saying 'milk' to refer to milk in their own cup, but not a picture of some milk in a book.
In language acquisition studies, the idea that children use ready-made chunks of language to create many different meanings. these chunks of language are termed constructions.
Virtuous error (Chomsky)
A non-standard utterance from a child based upon logical conclusions about grammar and morphology
A vocal effect where the speaker produces a rasping, creaky sound by blowing air through the vocal cords.
A model of language change that likens it to throwing a stone into a pond, with the ripples representing change spreading from a central point
Varieties of English (also called nativized varieties) that are spoken in countries such as India, Nigeria and Singapore, where, for historical reasons, English plays an important second language role. Deliberately challenges the notion that English is still 'owned' by its native speakers, or that there is a universal World Standard English.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with help.
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