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Terms in this set (53)
A series of repeated consonant-vowel sounds, "ba ba ba". 6-12 months
The one-word stage. 12-18 months
Child directed speech
Speech commonly used by adults when communicating with children. This is often high pitched and complete with cooing and terms of endearment, slower speech, simplification of structures and exaggerated intonation on certain words, particularly questions
The theory that language is an innate ability rather than acquired
The theory that language is acquired (through copying) and is not an innate ability
When children begin to merge out of the holophrastic stage and begin using more than one word. 18 months
When children have learned language rules such as the "-ed" suffix rule and then proceed to use the rule in all cases of their language such as "comed" instead of "came". Also calling every male "dad".
Carried out by Jean Gleason. This proved the nativism approach as the children were able to use the correct suffix despite never having heard of a "wug" before
Noam Chomsky (Nativism)
Grammar acquisition device is a tool that is hardwired in children's brains to enable them to learn and understand language.
Poverty of stimulus is the idea that children don't receive enough linguistic input to be able to learn a language based solely on that and so therefore they must have some form of an innate ability to be able to learn a language
Virtuous errors are non-standard errors they couldn't have copied - "runned"
B.F. Skinner (Behaviourism)
Children learn by imitating speech, accompanied by positive and negative reinforcement, also known as operant conditioning. However, how do we explain words like "hitted" if this is the case?
Lev Vygotsky (Cognitivism)
1. Social learning comes before linguistic acquisition
2. MKO - refers to someone who is more knowledgeable than the child
3. Zone of proximal development is the difference between what a child can do independently or with an adult
Jean Piaget (Cognitivism)
Children are born to understand the world with a brain adapted to solving puzzles. He says that children are different, not inferior.
Critical period hypothesis - If no language is learnt by 12 years old it can never be learned in a fully functional manner. Genie Wiley (feral child)
M.A.K Halliday (Functionalist approach)
We have four main functions as to why we speak and 3 later stages in development which allow children to make sense of their environment
Controlling the actions of others
Expressing needs for food, etc
Expressing feels; motivates children to use language once they are able to vocalise
Making sociable contact with others
Asking for information/clarification
Telling stories, joking, or lying in order to create an imaginary world
Consideration of the wider social context for language use
Close analysis of the key levels and frameworks of language
Utterances forming a structure but without function words. 2-3 years old
Sentence structures and clauses used appropriately with co-ordinating conjunctions, and longer noun phrases begin to occur. The passive voice starts to appear. 36 months
Essentially, crying, laughing, burping and fussing
Sounds made with both lips that restrict the air flow such as m, b, p and w. This relates to the anatomy highly developed for feeding and occurs in the one word stage at 12-18 months.
The difference between surface form (performance) and underlying deep structure (competence).
The surface form "open it" might have different interpretations based on context. It could mean, "look, I opened it" or "open it for me".
Language - De Saussure
Speaking - De Saussure
Logos and words that surround us everyday. Children make associations with their surroundings based on this
Any occasion upon which an individual mechanically manipulates appropriate tools to produce, or attempt to produce, graphic signals representing oral speech
Kroll's stages of development
Preparation stage, consolidation stage, differentiation stage and integration stage
Barclay's stages of development
Scribbling stage, mock handwriting stage, mock letters stage, conventional letters stage, invented spelling stage, phonetic spelling stage, correct spelling stage
18 months to 6 years. Texts are complex and not as sophisticated as oral language. Basic motor skills are acquired alongside some principles of spelling
6 to 8 years. Write in the same way as you speak (colloquial) Use lots of colloquialisms, familiar connectives and short declarative statements
8 to mid-teens. A distinct writing style of grammar develops using structures only found in the written language. Elements of oral language grammar may still be used interchangeably in texts
Mid-teens and up. Children can differentiate between oral and written forms and grammars and can consciously use them interchangeably
Random marks on a page, writing and scribbles are accompanied by speaking
Mock handwriting stage
Writing and drawings, cursive writing, produce wavy lines which is their understanding of lineation
Mock letters stage
Children produce random letters. Still no awareness of space or matching sounds with letters
Conventional letters stage
Usually involves writing the name as the first word, child usually puts letters on a page but is able to read it as words
Invented spelling stage
Child spells in the way they understand th word should be spelt - in their own way
Phonetic spelling stage
Attach spelling with sounds, understand that hones are represented by graphemes
Correct spelling stage
Are able to spell most words
Any reading or writing like behaviour which mimics components of the activities that are generally considered reading and writing. There is no agreed moment when reading and writing may be said to begin and schools often assume that children know nothing at all about literacy
Any occasion upon which an individual comprehends or attempts to comprehend a message encoded in graphic signs
The understanding that we write from left to right
The understanding that we write in horizontal lines
Breaking words down into individual sounds or syllables
Pulling together individual sounds or syllables within a word
A word or phrase (such as this, that, these, those, now, then) that points to the time, place, or situation in which a speaker is speaking
Labov's narrative structure
1. Abstract - How does it begin?
2. Orientation - Who/what does it involve, and when/where?
3. Complicating Action - Then what happened?
4. Resolution - What finally happened?
5. Evaluation - So what?
6. Coda - What does it all mean?
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