Upgrade to remove ads
GCSE PE, Applied Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (63)
The Structure of the Skeleton
The skeleton provides a framework for movement. It is made up of bones and joints of different types, which provide something for muscles to hold on to.
The skeletal system and the muscular system - known collectively as the musculoskeletal system - work together to allow movement, which occurs at the joints. Different types of joints allow for different types of movement.
There are 4 types of bones -
Flat Bones - Often quite large and usually protect vital organs.
Long Bones - Enable large movements.
Short Bones - Enable fine movements.
Irregular Bones - Shaped to protect.
The human body contains articulating bones, which meet at a joint to enable movement.
The Functions of the Skeleton
Shape and Structure,
Blood Cell Production,
Storage of Minerals.
Synovial joints, also known as free movable joints, are the most common joints in the human body. They are located at the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee and ankle. Thy have particular structural features that are shown in the following diagram of the knee.
Types of Freely Movable Joints
The different types of synovial joints allow different types of movements to occur. For example:
Ball and socket joints can move away from the body, back towards the body, and can also rotate. This range of motion makes them the most movable joint in the body. The shoulder joint and the hip joint are ball and socket joints.
Hinge joints can only move in one direction, towards and away from each other, like the hinge on a door. the elbow, knee and ankle joints are all hinge joints.
Joint Action and Movements
Different joints allow different types of movement. For example:
The hinge joints at the knee and elbow can only move in one direction, enabling flexion and extension.
The hinge joint at the ankle enables plantar flexion and dorsiflexion.
The ball and socket joints at the hip and shoulder enable rotation, adduction, abduction, as well as flexion and extension.
The Muscular System
The majority of movement in then body occurs at the shoulder, hip,knee and ankle joints so it is important to be able to identify the major muscle groups that operate at these joints:
Shoulder: Deltoid, trapezius, pectorals, latissimus dorsi, biceps, triceps, rotator cuff.
Elbow: Biceps, Triceps.
Hip: Gluteals, hip flexors.
Knee: Quads, Hamstrings.
Ankle: Gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior.
Muscles and Movement
Muscles can only pull, not push. They are therefore arranged in pairs on either sides of joints. One muscle contracts and pulls while the other relaxes, and vice versa. The muscle that contracts is called the prime mover or agonist. The muscle that relaxes is called the antagonist. Muscle work in agnostic pairs.
Obvious Agnostic Pairs
Biceps and Triceps, acting at the elbow to create flexion and extension.
Hip flexors and Gluteals: Acting at the hip to create flexion and extension.
Hamstring Group and Quads: Acting at the knee to create flexion and extension.
Tibialis anterior and Gastrocnemius: Acting at the ankle to create dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.
Thes occur when the muscle changes length when it contracts, and they result in limb movement. Isotonic contractions can be concentric (where the muscle contracts and shortens) or eccentric (where the muscle contracts and lengthens usually in the downwards phase of a movement).
These occur when the muscle stays the same length. There is no actual movement of either the limb or the joint because the muscles are working to keep the joint stationary.
The Respiratory System
The respiratory system brings oxygen into the body so it can be used to produce energy and enable activity. It then gets rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product, which is produced in the muscles during exercise.
When you breathe in, air enters through the nose and mouth. It then travels down a long tube, called the trachea, which connects to the lungs. Then it passes through the bronchi and the bronchioles and into the alveoli where gaseous exchange occurs.
1. Oxygen that has been breathed in passes through the alveoli and in to the red blood cells in the capillaries.
2. In the capillaries, the oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin and is then carried around the body.
3. At the same time haemoglobin carries carbon dioxide from the body to the capillaries.
4. The carbon dioxide in the capillaries passes through the alveoli and is breathed out.
Gaseous Exchange: the process where oxygen from the air in the alveoli moves into the blood in the capillaries, while carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli.
The protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body.
A chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds to oxygen.
Small air sacks in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.
A network of microscopic blood vessels. they are only one cells thick.
The distance travelled during diffusion. The diffusion pathway is short in gaseous exchange.
The Mechanics Of Breathing
The action of breathing in and out is due to changes of pressure within the thorax, in comparison with the outside. This action is also known as external respiration. When we inhale the intercostal muscles (between the ribs) and diaphragm contract to expand the chest cavity. The diaphragm flattens and moves downwards and the intercostal muscles move the rib cage upwards and out.
This increase in size decreases the internal air pressure and so air from the outside (at a now higher pressure that inside the thorax) rushes into the lungs to equalise the pressures.
A spirometer is a piece of equipment that measures the air capacity of the human lungs.
A spirometer measures:
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume. Expiratory Reserve Volume decreases during exercise.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume. Inspiratory Reserve Volume decreases during exercise.
The amount of ait that stays in the lungs after animal expiration. There is no change in Residual Volume during exercise.
The normal amount of of air inhaled or exhaled per breath. Tidal Volume increases with exercise.
The largest volume of air that can be forcibly expired after the deepest possible inspiration.
The Cardiovascular System
Blood is transported through the whole body by a continuum of blood vessels. Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart, and veins transport the blood back to the heart. Capillaries carry blood to tissue cells and are the exchange sites of nutrients, gases, wastes, etc.
Blood containing a low concentration of oxygen.
Blood containing a high concentration of oxygen.
The number of times your heart beats in one minute. One heartbeat is one contraction and relation of the heart. Heart rate is measured in beats per minute (bpm).
The heart is divided into 4 sections:
The right atrium
The left atrium
The right ventricle
The left ventricle
Carry blood away from the heart (always oxygenated apart from the pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs)
Have thick muscular walls
Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
Contain blood under high pressure.
Found in the muscles and lungs
Microscopic - one cell thick
Very low blood pressure
Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood.
Carry blood to the heart (always de-oxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart)
Have thin walls
Have larger internal lumen
Contain blood under low pressure
Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards.
Pathway of the Blood
The passage of blood through the heart
Deoxygenated blood arrives at the left-hand side of the heart:
It enters the heart through the vena cava.
Blood flows into the right atrium.
Blood is pumped into the right ventricle.
Blood is pumped out of the heart, along the pulmonary artery, to the lungs.
Oxygenated blood arrives at the right-hand side of the heart:
It enters the heart through the pulmonary vein.
Blood flows into the left atrium.
Blood is pumped into the left ventricle.
Blood is pumped out of the heart, along the aorta, to the rest of the body.
The rhythmic Throbbing that you can feel as your arteries pump blood around the body. You can measure your heart rate using your pulse.
The flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent back flow.
The phase of the heart beat when the chambers of the heat relax and fill with blood.
The phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart contract and empty of blood; when blood is ejected from the heart.
One cycle of diastole and systole is called the cardiac cycle.
The pressure that blood is under. The systolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart contracts. The diastolic reading measures the pressure the bold is under when the heart relaxes.
The narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow. The arteries constrict during exercise so that less blood is delivered to inactive areas.
The widening of the internal diameter of the blood vessel to increase blood flow. The arteries dilate during exercise so that more blood is delivered to active areas, increasing their oxygen supply.
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.
The volume of blood ejected from the heart in one minute. Cardiac output: Stroke volume x Heart rate.
Working at a low to moderate intensity so that the body has time to use oxygen for energy production and work for a long period of time.
Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water
The amount of energy needed to complete an activity. Working at high intensity requires a large amount of energy. Working at a low intensity requires less energy.
Working for short periods of time at a high intensity without oxygen for energy production.
Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid
A mild poison waste product of anaerobic respiration.
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
The amount of oxygen needed to recover after exercise. It is characterised by an increased breathing rate and deeper breathing after exercise.
DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
The pain you feel in your muscles the day after exercise.
Physical fatigue is a felling of extreme tiredness due to a build-up of lactic acid in the muscles or working for a long period of time.
Immediate Exercise Effects
The minute you start training, you'll notice more frequent muscle contraction, raised body temperature and pulse, and deeper breathing known as tidal volume. Longer-term effects occur as the body adapts to regular exercise, including your heart getting larger, bones becoming denser and the vital capacity of your breath deepening
Short Term Exercise Effects
Aching/delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS)/cramp.
Long Term Exercise Effects
Body shape may change.
Improvements in specific components of fitness.
Build muscle strength.
Improve muscular endurance.
Build cardio-vascular endurance.
Increase in the size of the heart (hypertrophy).
Lower resting heart rate (bradycardia).
The enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the size of its cells. When a muscle is trained, small tears are created. As they heal they become thicker and increase in size.
Recommended textbook explanations
Health: The Basics
Rebecca J. Donatelle
Sets found in the same folder
Movement Analysis - GCSE PE
GCSE PE Physical, emotional and social health and…
GCSE PE Socio-cultural Influences
GCSE PE Sports Psychology
Sets with similar terms
PE - CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS
Anatomy and Physiology - All key definitions
Key terms chapter 1
SPORTS SCIENCE lowe
Other sets by this creator
Year 8 - "New Keywords " - Spanish
Year 8-KeyWords for Homework 2
Other Quizlet sets
CH 5 Navigate
A&P Ch 7.1 - 7.3
Chapter 7: Axial Skeleton
Chapter 8: Skeletal System