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The Unification Of Italy
Terms in this set (92)
When did Italy become unified?
What were the Great Powers?
Austria - Hungary
What was Italy like in 1789?
Not unified, just a collection of small states
When did the French Revolution begin?
What was a significant event in the French Revolution?
The killing of King Louis XVI
What did the French Revolution strive for?
How had Italy changed by 1810?
Part of Italy had been taken over by France
No longer a collection of small states, but still had divisions
Divided into 3 parts
More united by France
Describe Italy in 1815
More divisions than 1810
More similar to 1789 than 1810
Land conquered has been returned to original owners (Napoleon defeated in 1815)
Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont (late 18th century)
Capital - Turin
Ruled by House of Savoy
Effective civil service
Island of Sardinia was particularly backward
Lombardy and Venetia (late 18th century)
Capital - Milan
Ruled by Austrian officials in the name of the Austrian Empire
One of the most economically advanced areas of Italy
Republic of Venice (late 18th century)
Republic of St Mark
Merchants dominated trade in the Mediterranean (15th - 16th centuries)
By 1790s had lost importance as a trading power
Architectural and artistic splendour
The Central Duchies (late 18th century)
Independent states of Tuscany, Modena and Parma
Tuscany - Hasburg family - Austrian, Tuscany was at the heart of the Italian Renaissance
Capital of Tuscany - Florence
Modena and Parma - more political independence but Austrian influence
Kingdom of Naples (late 18th century)
Ruled by Bourbon family
Poorest Italian region
Dominated by Naples - Population 400,000
Social structure and economic system unchanged from medieval times
Land owned by absentee landlords and the Church
Large armies to control the people
The Papal States (late 18th century)
Ruled by the Pope
Dominated central Italy
No significant army, relied on Catholic countries to protect them if required
When did European powers declare war on France?
1792, which caused a period of European conflict until 1815
How did French rule negatively impact Italy?
Worsened lives for peasants
How did French rule positively impact Italy?
Changes to political boundaries
Mostly benefitted Trade and Industry
The Code Napoleon
What was the Treaty of Vienna?
It was a peace treaty signed by all of Europe's Great Powers along with some other European countries in Vienna. One of the aims was to establish a balance of powers between countries in Europe after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815.
Who was Metternich?
The dominant figure in the Austrian government from 1809 to 1848.
What were Metternich's goals/beliefs?
To suppress liberal and nationalist movements in Italy.
He regarded dominance in Italy as essential to Austria's security.
How did the Congress of Vienna restore the political boundaries of 1796?
Piedmont was restored to the King
Lombardy and Venetia were now joined together
The Central duchies were returned to the Austrian rulers
The Papal States were returned to the Pope
King Ferdinand I was returned to the throne in both Naples and Sicily
Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont (early 19th century)
House of Savoy restored
Code Napoleon was repealed, along with other rights such as free and open trials
No laws passed after 1800 were recognised
Features added by the French were removed
Jewish people were ordered to remain in ghettos
Lombardy and Venice (early 19th century)
Returned to Austrian control in 1814
Austrian dominance of Italian political life was strengthened at Vienna by Austria's annexation of Venice
The Papal States (early 19th century)
Pope Pius VII was restored to his position as spiritual and temporal ruler of the Papal States
Code Napoleon was abolished in most parts
Papal legal codes re established
Austrian influence was increased by the stationing of Austrian armed forces in the Papal States
Religious persecution increased
Pope hindered developments in education
One of the most economically poor
The Central Duchies (early 19th century)
Treaty left the Central Duchies under Austrian influence
Grand Duke Ferdinand became ruler of Tuscany
Ferdinand improved education, set up hospitals and food relief in an outbreak of typhus, and allowed freedom of expression
The new ruler of Parma removed the Code Napoleon but replaced it with a similar system
In Modena, Duke Francis IV was more repressive (e.g. Italians holding government under Napoleon were removed)
The Kingdom Of Naples (early 19th century)
The Bourbon King, Ferdinand I, was restored to his throne in 1815
The Church was restored to its position of power and authority
Liberal projects by the French were abandoned
In Sicily, in 1816, the British inspired constitution was destroyed
Ferdinand I's rule was oppressive
1820 - in Naples and Sicily, there began the first of a long, drawn out series of revolutions.
Extremists wanting social reforms and a redistribution of wealth, who were prepared to use revolutionary methods, and believed that political power should lie with the people
The belief that states should be organised into national units, and that people of the same race, language, culture etc. should be united in their own state
Describe Separatism and Particularism
The belief that local areas should be separate from any larger national units, unlike nationalism.
Concerned with improving rights through freedom of speech, free trials etc. and the belief that people have the right to have some say in government, most commonly through a representative government elected by property owners
Which country was most opposed to Italian nationalism? Why.
Austria, they realised that they would lose their part of Northern Italy and their influence over the Central Duchies
How did nationalist ideas spread through Italy?
Where in Italy was Separatism a popular idea?
Did Liberals and Radicals support the restored monarchies?
How was the growth of nationalism helped?
More interest in Italian history and culture
The common variation of the language was Tuscan
How was the growth of nationalism hindered?
No single Italian language
Discontent with existing rulers
Unlikely that nationalism would be supported by all classes
Describe the Carbonari
-Based in Southern Italy
-Around 60,000 members
-Hoped to establish a constitutional monarchy in Piedmont
Describe the Freemasons
-In the 1790s their main aim was to drive out the French
-After 1815 aimed to overthrow restored monarchs and drive out Austrians
Why were secret societies important for Revolutions?
Showed that people were determined to promote change in society, and they allowed ideas to be spread around secretly, aiding the success of revolutions.
Describe the 1820s revolution in Naples
-King Ferdinand was a corrupt ruler and gave the Church too much power, upsetting the middle class.
-Inspired by recent revolution in Spain
-Aimed to get a new constitution, and establish a single chamber government, elected by adult males
-Ferdinand requested Austria's help, and defeated the rebels with Austrian force.
Describe the 1820s revolution in Sicily
-The islanders hated being united with Naples
-They wanted a new constitution and independence from Naples, as well as the removal of all Neapolitan symbols.
-The separatists were crushed by troops from Naples and old order returned to the island to prevent further rebellion.
Describe the 1930s revolution in Piedmont
-King Victor Emmanuel I declared that the old old constitution of 1770 would remain in force and never change
-Rebels wanted a constitutional monarchy that would allow their ultimate goal of destroying Austrian influence, and they wanted the 'Kingdom of Italy'
-Charles Albert deserted the revolutionaries, forcing many into exile, and Charles Felix claimed the throne and was supported by Austrian troops
Describe the 1930s revolution in Modena and Parma
-Liberals hoped for a more united Italy and there was discontent in the army.
-The aim was to unite the two states to force out Austrian influence
-The Hapsburg duke/duchess were restored to power by Austrian forced, and suspected rebels were imprisoned, exiled or executed.
Describe the 1930s revolution in the Papal States
-The Pope ruled in a corrupt manner
-A new 'Government of Italian Provinces' was to be set up and the rebels wanted the Pope to grant liberal reforms.
-Austrian troops crushed rebels and Metternich ensured that the Pope had his power restored.
Why did the Revolutions of the 1820s and 1830s fail?
-Revolts were regional, not national, so lacked power
-There was little communication between revolutionaries
-The social base was often narrow as revolts were often led by members of exclusive secret societies
-Austrian armies crushed the revolutions
How far did the Revolutions of the 1820s and 1830s show a more united Italy?
Sicily wanted separation from Naples
Many wanted a new constitution
Many desired the removal of Austrian influence
What is Risorgimento?
A movement in Italy which strive for unification (resurgence or rebirth)
Where do the roots of an Italian national entity come from?
The Roman Empire
Who ere the Jacobins?
The most ruthless radicals of the French Revolution who demanded universal liberty.
Who were the Adelfi?
A strongly anti-French society which became the 'Sublime Perfect Masters' in 1818. Its main aim was the destruction of Austrian rule that would lead to a democratic republic.
Who were the Italian Federation?
Secret society that aimed for the creation of a North Italian state to be ruled by a constitutional monarchy
What was the Risorgimento?
A movement which strove for the unification of Italy
Meaning resurgence or rebirth
Where can ideas about Italy as a national entity be traced back to?
The Roman Empire
How was the Risorgimento written about when it originated?
A moral revival - the struggle of good over evil. It linked the resurrection of Italian culture with the concept of liberty
Who were the Jacobins?
Ruthless radicals of the French Revolution
What was the Italian Federation?
A secret society that aimed for the creation of a north Italian state to be ruled by a constitutional monarchy.
What was 'Young Italy'?
An organisation formed by Mazzini in France in 1831 which strove for Italian unification. Founded after the failure of the secret societies in the 1820s, but it failed too.
How did nationalism manifest into different Italian regions?
Tuscany - nationalist ideas spread through journal Antologia
Lombardy - some encouraged the use of Italian after the restoration of Austrian control
Milan - journals spread ideas of an Italian identity and national consciousness.
What was the Congress Degil Scienziata?
A national organisation which held meetings between 1839 and 1847, which were attended by members from different regions, using the Italian language.
How did music and literature contribute to the Risorgimento?
There was an increase in works that maintained a patriotic theme, and helped to define a national identity.
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?
An Italian politician and activist for unification
Believed in equality and hated xenophobia and imperialism
Wanted one central government and democracy
Founded Young Italy in 1831
Had a radical approach which led to him being criticised as a terrorist
Wanted to avoid help from France - Italy should unite by itself
Was disappointed in how Italy eventually became unified
How significant was Mazzini in Risorgimento?
Showed a desire for nationalism/unification
Movement grew rapidly and covered multiple areas of Italy
Young Italy was a failure and Mazzini faced multiple exiles
Who was Vincenzo Gioberti?
Italian philosopher, clergyman and politician
Believed the future of Italy lay with the Pope
Published a book that boosted his fame
Wanted a unified Italy ruled by the Pope
Who was Cesare Balbo?
Piedmontese political writer who became Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont
Wrote books (e.g. the 'Hope of Italy') which showed the antirevolutionary nature of his patriotism and liberalism.
Said that independence from Austria was desirable but that Austria should be compensated with Balkan territory
Was only interested in a united northern territory
Who were Verdi and Rossini?
Italian composers whose work often featured nationalist messages
Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
Italian general and nationalist
He joined the Carbonari and particpated in the failed Piedmontese revolt.
From a poorer background from other key intellectuals from the Risorgimento.
Who was Massimo d'Azeglio?
A conservative monarchist who wanted a federal union between states and conveyed his ideas through the arts, especially literature.
Ruled as PM of Sardinia, where he worked to accept constitutional status and encouraged negotiating a peace treaty with Austria to end foreign rule in Italy.
Who was Pope Pius IX?
Pope who was often thought of as Liberal
Allowed lay-people to be involved in running the Church, relaxed censorship and freed political prisoners
Was unwilling to grant nationalist and liberal reform terms
Gave the Church little respect/credibility
What were the economic causes of the 1848-49 revolutions?
-Bad harvests in 1846-47
-Boycott of Austrian tobacco monopoly
-Trade slump in 1846-47 leading to high unemployment
-The gradual development of industry threatened traditional patterns
What were the political causes of the 1848-49 revolutions?
-Separatist hostility to Neapolitan rule in Sicily
-The election of Pope Pius IX in 1846
-The role of the Risorgimento
-Revolution in France in February 1848
-The fall of Metternich following the Austrian revolution of March 1848
-Liberal and Nationalist resentment of Austrian and Autocratic rule
-Middle classes were excluded from government
Why was Pope Pius considered a potential leader for the Italian nationalist cause after his election in 1846?
-Released 2000 prisoners, impressing the liberals
-In 1847 press censorship by the Church was ended
-Civil guard of local people was created to protect property and quickly gained members who supported Mazzini
-A council was set up in 1847 to advise the papacy - seen as the first step to desired elected parliament
-He was perceived as the 'Liberal Pope'
-Lodged a formal protest with the Austrian government
-Gave more power to laypeople
Why might Pope Pius have been unsuitable as a potential Italian leader?
-Seen as emotional, excitable, quick tempered, impulsive
-Had a weak memory and was easily confused
-Easily influenced by stronger personalities
-More of a reactionary
What were the features of the 1848-49 revolution in Sicily?
-They set up their own provisional governments, with a national guard and elections
-Not a radical revolution
What were the aims/causes of the 1848-49 revolution in Sicily?
-A reaction against the oppressive King Ferdinand II
-An outbreak of Cholera (killed 1/10th of pop.) was blamed on Neapolitan misrule
-Revolutionaries wanted separatism and the reestablishment of the 1812 constitution
What were the results of the 1848-49 revolution in Sicily?
-Ferdinand launched a military assault on the island in September 1848
-In May 1849 Naples crushed the insurrection
-The King reverted his earlier promises and abolished parliament and replaced it with absolute rule and a police state
What were the aims/causes of the 1848/49 revolution in Naples?
-Revolution in Sicily spread to the mainland
-On 17th January 1848, an uprising of secret societies forced concessions from Ferdinand, e.g. the release of political prisoners
-Most revolutionaries also wanted a constitution
What were the features of the 1848-49 revolution in Naples?
-There was a mass demonstration in Naples on January 27th
What were the results of the 1848-49 revolution in Naples?
-Ferdinand agreed to grant a constitution, which was granted in February 1848 and was conservative in nature. This raised the expectations of Liberals throughout the peninsula
What were the aims/causes of the 1848-49 revolution in Lombardy?
-In January 1848 there was a boycott of Austrian tobacco (rise against occupying foreign power)
- Metternich fell from power on March 13th 1848, which was followed by riots in Milan (the Five Days)
What were the features of the 1848-49 revolution in Lombardy?
-The Five Days was a full scale revolution on the streets of Lombardy
-300 people were killed as Austrian commander Radetzky withdrew his troops form the city
What were the results of the 1848-49 revolution in Lombardy?
-Austrian garrison was driven out of Milan
-Provisional government was set up and turned to Charles Albert for help
-Lombardy was restored to Austrian rule in August 1848
What were the aims/causes of the 1848-49 revolution in the Papal States?
-Pope Pius abandoned the war against Austria and in April 1848 announced his Allocution, which turned many against him.
What were the features of the 1848-49 revolution in the Papal States?
-Pius came under increasing radical pressure due to his betrayal
-In November 1848 Pius' minister Rossi was assassinated by the people of Rome
What were the result of the 1848-49 revolution in the Papal States?
-The Pope fled to Naples
-The Roman Republic was declared, with one of the leaders being Mazzini (the Triumvirate)
-The Pope called on foreign troops to restore him to power, and in April 1849 the French sent 2000 troops.
-The Republic fought under Garibaldi but the city fell in July 1849, and the republic was crushed by French troops
-Pius returned to Rome on April 12th 1850
What were the aims/causes of the 1848-49 revolution in Venetia?
-Crowds protested against Austrian rule and demanded the release of patriot Daniel Manin from prison in March 1848
What were the features of the 1848-49 revolution in Venetia?
The Venetians wanted to avoid the radical path as they had seen extreme loss of life in the French revolutions
What were the results of the 1848-49 revolutions in Venetia?
-In March 1848 a republic was declared, which was moderate in nature and looked to Piedmont for help with Austria
-Manin was released
-The Venetian government introduced social reforms but by 1849 the region was isolated
-The city of Venice surrendered to Austria in August 1849
What happened to Piedmont during the 1848-49 revolutions?
-No revolution, they joined the war against Austria
-Charles Albert gave in to liberal demands which resulted in the statuto (constitutional monarchy)
-Albert feared military intervention from France and saw an opportunity for the annexation of Lombardy. Piedmont declared war on Austria
-Many abandoned the cause to not go against the Pope (and God) due to the Allocution
-Defeated at the Battle of Custoza and later rejoined the war
-Charles Albert was defeated at Novara, he abdicated in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II
What were the aims/causes of the 1848-49 revolution in Tuscany?
-Grand Duke granted a constitution in 1848, and sent a small army to fight Austria, displeasing some
-Workers became agitated about pay and conditions
-Middle class radical extremists began to preach republicanism
What were the features of the 1848-49 revolution in Tuscany?
-In January 1848 the Grand Duke left for Naples (absolute monarchy)
-A revolutionary provisional government was set up and a dictator appointed in advance of arrangements to declare a republic
What were the results of the 1848-49 revolution in Tuscany?
-Charles Albert's defeat at Novara allowed the Austrian army to sweep down into Tuscany
-The Austrians crushed the revolution and restored the Grand Duke to his throne
-Similar events occurred in Modena and Parma
Why did the 1848-49 revolutions fail?
-No single leader
-Lack of cooperation between groups
-No single aim
-Different motives and experiences of provisional governments
-Intervention of foreign powers (Austria and France)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
The unification of Italy
Key Individuals before 1848/49?
1820-1849 - Successes and Failures
Unification of Italy
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